Official 49 Passage 2


Movable Type


The word phenomena in the passage is closest in meaning to

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正确答案: B

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  • Nothing divided the medieval world in Europe more decisively from the Early Modern period than printing with movable type. It was a German invention and the culmination of a complex process. The world of antiquity had recorded its writings mainly on papyrus. Between 200 B.C and A.D 300, this was supplemented by vellum, calf skin treated and then smoothed by pumice stone. To this in late Roman times was added parchment, similarly made from the smoothed skin of sheep or goats. In the early Middle Ages, Europe imported an industrial process from China, which turned almost any kind of fibrous material into pulp that was then spread in sheets. This was known as cloth parchment. By about 1150 the Spanish had developed the first mill for making cheap paper (a word contracted from "papyrus", which became the standard term). One of the most important phenomena of the later Middle Ages was the growing availability of cheap paper. Even in England, where technology lagged far behind, a sheet of paper, or eight octavo pages, cost only a penny by the fifteenth century.

    In the years 1446-1448, two German goldsmiths, Johannes Gutenberg and Johann Fust, made use of cheap paper to introduce a critical improvement in the way written pages were reproduced. Printing from wooden blocks was the old method; what the Germans did was to invent movable type for the letterpress. It had three merits: it could be used repeatedly until worn out; it was cast in metal from a mold and so could be renewed without difficulty; and it made lettering uniform. In 1450, Gutenberg began work on his Bible, the first printed book, known as the Gutenberg. It was completed in 1455 and is a marvel. As Gutenberg, apart from getting the key idea, had to solve a lot of practical problems, including imposing paper and ink into the process and the actual printing itself, for which he adapted the screw press used by winemakers, it is amazing that his first product does not look at all rudimentary. Those who handle it are struck by its clarity and quality.

    Printing was one of those technical revolutions that developed its own momentum at extraordinary speed. Europe in the fifteenth century was a place where intermediate technology-that is, workshops with skilled craftspeople-was well established and spreading fast, especially in Germany and Italy. Such workshops were able to take on printing easily, and it thus became Europe's first true industry. The process was aided by two factors: the new demand for cheap classical texts and the translation of the Latin Bible into "modern" languages. Works of reference were also in demand. Presses sprang up in several German cities, and by 1470, Nuremberg, Germany had established itself as the center of the international publishing trade, printing books from 24 presses and distributing them at trade fairs all over western and central Europe. The old monastic scriptoria-monastery workshops where monks copied texts by hand-worked closely alongside the new presses, continuing to produce the luxury goods that movable-type printing could not yet supply. Printing, however, was primarily aimed at a cheap mass sale.

    Although there was no competition between the technologies, there was rivalry between nations. The Italians made energetic and successful efforts to catch up with Germany. Their most successful scriptorium quickly imported two leading German printers to set up presses in their book-producing shop. German printers had the disadvantage of working with the complex typeface that the Italians sneeringly referred to as "Gothic" and that later became known as black letter. Outside Germany, readers found this typeface disagreeable. The Italians, on the other hand, had a clear typeface known as roman that became the type of the future.

    Hence, although the Germans made use of the paper revolution to introduce movable type, the Italians went far to regain the initiative by their artistry. By 1500 there were printing firms in 60 German cities, but there were 150 presses in Venice alone. However, since many nations and governments wanted their own presses, the trade quickly became international. The cumulative impact of this industrial spread was spectacular. Before printing, only the very largest libraries, of which there were a dozen in Europe, had as many as 600 books. The total number of books on the entire Continent was well under 100,000. But by 1500, after only 45 years of the printed book, there were 9 million in circulation.

  • 没有什么比活字印刷更能够将中世纪的欧洲和近代早期划分开来。 这是德国的发明,并且是复杂加工的巅峰。 古时主要在纸莎草纸上记录作品。 公元前200年到公元300年之间,还增加了牛皮纸(作为书写材料)——小牛皮经过加工,用浮石将其变平整。 在这基础之上,在罗马时代晚期,又增加了羊皮纸,同样由光滑的绵羊或山羊皮制成。 在中世纪早期,欧洲从中国进口工业方法,将几乎任何一种纤维材料变成浆,然后铺成片状。 这被称为布羊皮纸。 在大约1150年,西班牙已经建立了制造廉价纸的第一个工厂(paper是papyrus的缩写,现在已经变成了标准术语)。 中世纪后期最重要的现象之一就是廉价纸张的日益普及。 即使是在技术远远落后的英国,一张纸或八开纸,到十五世纪时都只要一分钱。

    在1446-1448年间,两个德国金匠约翰内斯•古登堡和约翰•福斯特,利用廉价的纸张,在纸张再利用方面做出了重要的改进。 木版印刷是过去的方法;德国人所做的是发明活版印刷。 它有三个优点:它在磨损之前可以反复使用;它是用磨具铸造成金属(模块),所以很容易被重新利用;它使文字(样式)统一。 在1450,古腾堡开始着手于印刷圣经,第一本印刷的书被称作《古腾堡(圣经)》。 它在1455年完成,并且是一个杰作。 除了获取关键的灵感,古腾堡需要解决很多实际问题,包括在生产和实际印刷过程中将纸张和油墨装板,他改良了酿酒师的螺旋压力机,而令人吃惊的是,他的第一个产品看上去并不粗糙。 接触过他第一个产品的人都震惊于其清晰和质量。

    印刷术是一种技术革命,它以非凡的速度发展。 在十五世纪的欧洲,媒介工艺(指的是拥有高技术工匠的工作室)发展的很好并且迅速蔓延,尤其是在德国和意大利。 这样的工作室能够很容易地开展印刷,从而成为欧洲第一个真正的产业。 这个发展得益于两个因素:对于廉价经典文本的新需求,以及将拉丁文的《圣经》翻译成“现代”语言的需求。 参考文献也有需求。 出版社在德国的几个城市中涌现出来,并且截至1470年底,德国纽伦堡成为国际出版业的中心,印刷来自24家出版社的书籍,并且通过商品交易会,将这些书籍分发到西欧和中欧国家。 古老的寺院缮写室(修道院工作室,在这里和尚通过手抄复制书籍)和出版社共存,继续生产奢侈制品,继续提供活字印刷无法供应的制品。 但是,印刷,主要是针对廉价的大规模销售。

    虽然这些技术之间没有竞争,但国家之间存在着竞争。 意大利费尽心力,成功地赶上了德国。 意大利最成功的写字间迅速引入两台德国领先的印刷机,装配在他们的书籍制作车间。 德国打印机的缺点是需要处理复杂的字形,这被意大利人轻蔑地称为“哥特式”,后来(这些字体)被称为黑体字。 在德国以外,这种字体读起来令人感觉不适。 与之形成对比的是,意大利人有一个清晰的字体被称为“罗马字体”,而这种字体成为未来的主流。

    因此,尽管德国人利用纸张革命引进了活字印刷术,意大利人却以其艺术性获得了主动性。 截至1500年,在德国的60个城市有印刷公司,但仅在威尼斯就有了150家印刷厂。 然而,由于许多国家和政府希望拥有自己的印刷厂,该行业迅速地国际化。 这种产业持续扩张的影响是可观的。 在印刷术出现之前,只有最大的图书馆,其中一大部分在欧洲,才可能拥有600本书籍。 整个大陆的书籍总数远低于10万册。 但到了1500年,在印刷书籍出现45年后,发行量达到了900万册。
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    原文定位:词汇所在句One of the most important phenomena of the later Middle Ages was the growing availability of cheap paper.”即“中世纪后期最重要的现象之一就是廉价纸张的日益普及。phenomena : 现象。

    选项分析: tradition:传统;occurences:事件; 发生的事;perceptions:知觉; 觉察;consequence:结果,成果。因此,选项B最接近题干词意。