Official 47 Passage 1


Roman Cultural Influence on Britain


Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

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The conquest of Britain by the Roman Empire resulted in significant cultural change.

正确答案: A B E
  • A.
    New objects entering Britain ranged from mass-produced articles for everyday use to works of art, and they were widely-and enthusiastically-accepted by native Britons.
  • B.
    Constructing and furnishing buildings in the Roman style required skills that native workers did not at first have, so workers were brought in from other parts of the empire.
  • C.
    Native Britons traveled to Gaul to learn Classical stone-carving and building techniques.
  • D.
    The conquest was followed by a building boom, and enough villas and temples in the Italian style were built that a visitor from Rome would have felt quite at home in post-conquest Britain.
  • E.
    An important symbol of Roman supremacy was Roman architecture, whose enormous size, emphasized by the use of straight lines, made the natives feel insignificant.
  • F.
    Characteristically Romano-British concepts took hold in architecture; roundhouses were built much larger than before, and straight lines began to be used in interior spaces.

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  • 译文
  • After the Roman Empire's conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., the presence of administrators, merchants, and troops on British soil, along with the natural flow of ideas and goods from the rest of the empire, had an enormous influence on life in the British Isles. Cultural influences were of three types: the bringing of objects, the transfer of craft workers, and the introduction of massive civil architecture. Many objects were not art in even the broadest sense and comprised utilitarian items of clothing, utensils, and equipment. We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been available. The flooding of Britain with red-gloss pottery from Gaul (modern-day France), decorated with scenes from Classical mythology, probably brought many into contact with the styles and artistic concepts of the Greco-Roman world for the first time, whether or not the symbolism was understood. Mass-produced goods were accompanied by fewer more aesthetically impressive objects such as statuettes. Such pieces perhaps first came with officials for their own religious worship; others were then acquired by native leaders as diplomatic gifts or by purchase. Once seen by the natives, such objects created a fashion which rapidly spread through the province.

    In the most extreme instances, natives literally bought the whole package of Roman culture. The Fishbourne villa, built in the third quarter of the first century A.D.,probably for the native client king Cogidubnus, amply illustrates his Roman pretensions. It was constructed in the latest Italian style with imported marbles and stylish mosaics. It was lavishly furnished with imported sculptures and other Classical objects. A visitor from Rome would have recognized its owner as a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste. Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured. Although exceptional, this demonstrates how new cultural symbols bound provincials to the identity of the Roman world.

    Such examples established a standard to be copied. One result was an influx of craft worker, particularly those skilled in artistic media like stone-carving which had not existed before the conquest. Civilian workers came mostly from Gaul and Germany. The magnificent temple built beside the sacred spring at Bath was constructed only about twenty years after the conquest. Its detail shows that it was carved by artists from northeast Gaul. In the absence of a tradition of Classical stone-carving and building, the desire to develop Roman amenities would have been difficult to fulfill. Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons. As many of the officials in Britain had strong links with Gaul, it is not surprising that early Roman Britain owes much to craft workers from that area. Local workshops did develop and stylistically similar groups of sculpture show how skills in this new medium became widerspread. Likewise skills in the use of mosaic, wall painting, ceramic decoration, and metal-working developed throughout the province with the eventual emergence of characteristically Romano-British styles.

    This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most important factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.

  • 在公元一世纪罗马帝国征服不列颠之后,行政官员、商人和军队在不列颠土地上的存在,以及来自帝国其他地区的思想和商品的自然流动,对不列颠岛屿上的生活产生巨大的影响。文化影响分为三种类型:物品的引入、工艺师的迁移以及宏大行政建筑的引入。许多物品甚至按照最宽泛的广义都算不上是艺术品,包括衣物、餐具、设备等实用功能物品。我们不应该低估这些以前不可能获得的世俗所有物和社会身份地位之间的关系。来自高卢(现在的法国)的散发红色光泽的陶器大量涌入,这些陶器饰以古典神话中的场景,第一次让很多不列颠人接触到希腊罗马世界的的风格和艺术观念,不管他们是否能够理解其象征意义。伴随大规模生产商品的还有少数审美上更令人印象深刻的物品,例如微型雕像。大部分这些微型雕像也许是官员们携带来的,这些官员用它们进行宗教活动。其他的微型雕像是通过本地领导人接受外交馈赠或购买所获得。一旦被当地人看到,这样的物品就成为时尚,在整个不列颠省迅速蔓延。



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    New objects选项:对文章第一段的概括


    An important选项:对文章第四段的概括


    The conquest选项:与第二段“A visitor from Rome would have recognized its owner as a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste.”表述不符,错误;

    Native Britons选项:与第三段“Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons.”不符,错误;