Official 48 Passage 3


Climate and Urban Development


Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

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Cities are generally warmer than the surrounding countryside, a phenomenon known as the urban heat island.

正确答案:A C E
  • A.
    In the countryside, much solar energy is used in evaporation, but in the city this energy builds up as heat.
  • B.
    Increased industrial and urban development has also increased average levels of humidity over the last century.
  • C.
    Pollution from cars and factories helps increase the amounts of fog and precipitation that occur in cities.
  • D.
    The urban heat island is strongest in the summer, when the days are long and the sunlight is intense.
  • E.
    Heat and air are trapped in the irregular spaces between buildings which creates the atmospheric conditions that result in storms and winds
  • F.
    Country breezes blow pollutants put from the cities into the surrounding countryside

我的笔记 编辑笔记

  • 原文
  • 译文
  • For more than a hundred years, it has been known that cities are generally warmer than surrounding rural areas. This region of city warmth, known as the urban heat island, can influence the concentration of air pollution. However, before we look at its influence, let's see how the heat island actually forms.

    The urban heat island is due to industrial and urban development. In rural areas, a large part of the incoming solar energy is used in evaporating water from vegetation and soil. In cities, where less vegetation and exposed soil exist, the majority of the Sun's energy is absorbed by urban structures and asphalt. Hence, during warm daylight hours, less evaporative cooling in cities allows surface temperatures to rise higher than in rural areas. The cause of the urban heat island is quite involved. Depending on the location, time of year, and time of day, any or all of the following differences between cities and their surroundings can be important: albedo (reflectivity of the surface), surface roughness, emissions of heat, emissions of moisture, and emissions of particles that affect net radiation and the growth of cloud droplets.

    At night, the solar energy (stored as vast quantities of heat in city buildings and roads) is slowly released into the city air. Additional city heat is given off at night (and during the day) by vehicles and factories, as well as by industrial and domestic heating and cooling units. The release of heat energy is retarded by the tall vertical city walls that do not allow infrared radiation to escape as readily as does the relatively level surface of the surrounding countryside. The slow release of heat tends to keep nighttime city temperatures higher than those of the faster-cooling rural areas. Overall, the heat island is strongest at night when compensating sunlight is absent; during the winter, when nights are longer and there is more heat generated in the city; and when the region is dominated by a high-pressure area with light winds, clear skies, and less humid air. Over time, increasing urban heat islands affect climatological temperature records, producing artificial warming in climatic records taken in cities. This warming, therefore, must be accounted for in interpreting climate change over the past century.

    The constant outpouring of pollutants into the environment may influence the climate of the city. Certain particles reflect solar radiation, thereby reducing the sunlight that reaches the surface. Some particles serve as nuclei upon which water and ice form. Water vapor condenses onto these particles when the relative humidity is as low as 70 percent, forming haze that greatly reduces visibility. Moreover, the added nuclei increase the frequency of city fog.

    Studies suggest that precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside; this phenomenon may be due in part to the increased roughness of city terrain, brought on by large structures that cause surface air to slow and gradually converge. This piling up of air over the city then slowly rises, much like toothpaste does when its tube is squeezed. At the same time, city heat warms the surface air, making it more unstable, which enhances risings air motions, which, in turn, aids in forming clouds and thunderstorms. This process helps explain why both tend to be more frequent over cities.

    On clear still nights when the heat island is pronounced, a small thermal low-pressure area forms over the city. Sometimes a light breeze-called a country breeze-blows from the countryside into the city. If there are major industrial areas along the outskirts, pollutants are carried into the heart of town, where they tend to concentrate. Such an event is especially probable if vertical mixing and dispersion of pollutants are inhibited. Pollutants from urban areas may even affect the weather downwind from them.

  • 一百多年来,大家都知道城市一般比周围的农村温度更高。被称为城市热岛的区域性温暖可以影响空气污染的聚集。然而,在着眼于它的影响之前,让我们看看热岛事实上是如何形成的。





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    In the countryside选项:对文章第二段的概括;


    Heat and air选项:对文章第五段、第六段的概括;

    The urban hea选项:提到城市热岛效应在夏季最强,但文中说的是冬天城市热岛效应更为明显,错误;