Official 50 Set 6

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Petroleum

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  • Q1
  • Q2
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  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Efforts to increase the production of petroleum and natural gas

  • B. Problems associated with the refining of dead oil

  • C. Recent improvements in methods used to locate petroleum

  • D. Background information essential to understanding the petroleum industry

显示答案 正确答案: D

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a geology class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:All right, class. Let's get started.Um, last time we finished up our section on coal, so we have just two fossil fuels left to talk about, and those are petroleum and natural gas.Today I'll concentrate on petroleum; and we'll get into natural gas tomorrow.

    Like coal and natural gas, petroleum has been formed over millions of years from the remains of prehistoric plants and animals.And, like coal and natural gas, it's found in the rocks of Earth's crust.

    In fact, the word "petroleum" literally means "rock oil."And, in its original state, the way we find it in Earth\'s crust, it\'s called "crude oil." Sometimes people shorten that up and, ah, just refer to it as "crude."Um, petroleum also contains natural gas, so usually the petroleum industry is naturally searching for and utilizing deposits of both crude oil and natural gas at the same time.In other words, companies might as well gather, use, and sell both the oil and the gas when they find it, since both are valuable.Anne?

    FEMALE STUDENT:But what kind of organic materials, I mean, specifically what kind of dead plants and animals make up petroleum, exactly?Do you mean, like trees and dinosaurs?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, apparently petroleum's usually made from simple, one-celled marine animals and plants... algae, for example. What happens is, this accumulated plant and animal material that originally came from the ocean gets covered by sediment and then is, um, eventually exposed to Earth's internal heat and pressure for millions of years.And over those millions of years, the heat cooks and the pressure molds that material, turning it into a thick, sticky liquid.And since petroleum's made from these ocean organisms, you can guess where it's found. It makes sense that we usually find it under the ocean or near shore, right?Yes, Anne?

    FEMALE STUDENT:I've heard people talk of, um ... "live" and "dead" oils.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, um, when crude oil has a lot of natural gas mixed up with it, it's called live oil.But if the gas escapes from the mixture, then the oil is said to be dead and it's heavy and more difficult to pump.Does anyone know how the gas separates, ah, from the oil? Sam, go ahead.

    MALE STUDENT:Doesn't it happen when the oil shoots up to the surface?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes. That's right. When oil reaches the surface of the earth, there's less pressure on it, and with less pressure, the oil and gas are able to separate.The other way that crude oil is able to come to the surface is by people pumping it up out of the ground.And, ah, it's the same thing that happens: at the surface, there's less pressure, and so the oil and gas separate.

    But when we talk about how it actually exists inside Earth's crust, most people think that there are huge pools of oil sitting around in caverns somewhere under there... that's really rare. The majority of the petroleum is just filling in the tiny pores and cracks in rocks.

    Now, um, a little more on the petroleum industry.As far as the extraction process, the petroleum industry digs deep wells to reach underground oil fields, where crude oil has accumulated over a large area and is trapped between layers of rocks.Then it pumps the crude oil out.Then its refineries have two main tasks: convert less-valuable crude oil into a more valuable form, and create usable products from refined oil.

    Basically, the refineries do this by boiling the oil.When the oil cools off, the stuff that's left is turned into a variety of products, like, ah, gasoline and diesel fuel for cars and trucks, asphalt for roads, um... paints,plastics, even soaps.And check what you're wearing,If you're wearing something with synthetic fibers what that really means is that it's made of petroleum!So you can see, petroleum is essential to today's industrial society.

    Now, next week we'll be joining graduate students from the Department of Petroleum Engineering to examine the comprehensive field study they're working on in our local oil fields.And I'd like you to read over the packet of information I'm about to hand out to you before we go.It should familiarize you with the history of the oil field we'll be touring as well as the details of their project.

  • 旁白:请听一个地质学课堂的讲座片段。

    教授:嗨,同学们,我们开始上课啦。嗯,上节课我们讲完了煤炭部分,所以我们就只剩下两种化石燃料需要讲了。也就是石油和天然气。今天我主要是集中讲石油,我们明天会开始讲天然气。

    就像是煤炭和天然气一样,石油也是几百万年前就形成了,它是由史前的动植物的遗体形成的。和煤炭和天然气一样,石油是在地壳岩层中被发现的。

    实际上,“石油”这个词字面意义上指的就是“岩层里的油”。石油原始的状态,也就是我们从地壳中发现它时的状态,是叫做原始状态的石油,有的时候人们会简化这个名字,就简单地叫它原油。嗯,石油也同样含有天然气,所以通常来说石油工业就是同时在寻找和使用原油加天然气的矿藏。换句话说,这些负责开采的公司在找到石油和天然气的时候会同时收集、使用和售卖两者,因为这两者同样有价值。Anne?

    学生:但是哪一种有机物质,我的意思是,具体是哪种死掉的动植物才可以形成石油呢?你的意思是树木和恐龙之类的吗?

    教授:嗯,显然石油通常是来自于简单的单细胞海洋动植物,比如说藻类,嗯,会发生的事情是,这种来自海洋的不断积累的动植物尸体会被沉积物覆盖。然后……嗯,最终会暴露在地球内部的高热和高压下,这个过程可以有几百万年。在这几百万年间,热量改变这些动植物尸体的性质,压力则为它们塑形,最终把它们变成了厚重粘稠的液体。因为石油是来自于这些海洋生物的,你们可以猜出哪里可以找到石油,我们经常在海底或者海岸边发现石油就显得很有道理了,对吗?安,你有什么疑问吗?

    学生:我听说有人会谈论……啊……活的石油和死的石油?

    教授:嗯,当石油里混有大量的天然气,这就叫做活的石油。但是如果天然气从石油里分离出来,那么这种石油就被称之为死油,死的石油很重,而且更难被泵出来。有人知道天然气怎么从石油里分离出来吗?山姆,你说。

    学生:这是不是在石油喷射到达地面的时候发生的?

    教授:是的,正确。当石油到达地面的时候,它所承受的压力就会变小,在更小的压力下,石油和天然气就会分离。另外一个原油能够到地表上来的方法就是人们可以用泵将它抽取上来。而且,嗯,以这种方式泵出的石油和前一种情况一样,到达地面的时候也会承受较小的压力,所以,石油和天然气就分开了。

    但是当我们谈论到石油在地壳里面到底是以什么形式存在的时候,大多数人认为在岩洞下面某处会有巨大的油池,但其实这种情况是很稀少的,大多数石油仅仅是填充在岩石里小的孔洞和裂缝中的。

    现在,嗯,我们再多讲一点关于石油工业的东西。在开采过程中,石油工厂挖深井,到达地下油田,这些地下油田里的原油是一大片地区所积累下来的,它们被从层层岩石之间抽取出来。然后泵石油的机器会把原油泵出来。然后精炼厂有两个主要的任务,将低价值的原油转化成更加有价值的形式,并且从精炼后的油里制造出可用的产品。

    基本上,精炼厂会通过蒸馏来进行这个过程。当石油冷却以后,它留下的东西可以被转化成各种各样的产品,就像是供给汽车和卡车的汽油,柴油,修路的沥青,嗯,颜料,塑料,甚至是肥皂。再看看你身上穿的衣服,如果你穿着含有合成纤维的衣服的话,这意味着它是由石油做成的。所以你们可以知道,石油对于现在的工业社会是多么至关重要。

    下周我们会和石油工程系的研究生一起去看看他们正在当地一处油田进行的综合性实地研究。我希望你们在出发之前读完我将要给到你们的一些资料。这些资料可以帮助你们熟悉这处我们将要去的油田的历史,还有这个项目的一些细节。

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  • 本题对应音频:
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    题型分类: 主旨题
    原文定位:
    MALE Professor: Hi, class, let’s get started. Um, last time we finished up the section of coal, so we have just two fossil fuels left to talk about. Those are petroleum and natural gas. Today I will concentrate on petroleum and we will get into natural gas tomorrow.

    选项分析:

    本题问的是讲座的主要内容。从教授的开场白我们可以看出来,这节课主要是关于石油的一节通识课,结合后文内容可确定选项D选项。

    选项A是石油和天然气增产的办法;

    选项B是死的石油精炼的问题;

    选项C是定位石油技术的改进,都不是讲座的主要内容。


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