A. Why the Salon exhibitions became popular among women artists in Paris
B. Why French society did not approve of art schools or women
C. How opportunities for women artists in Paris improved
D. How women artists in Paris cooperated with one another
NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.
MALE PROFESSOR:We had been talking about the art world of the late 19th century in Paris, and today I'd like to look at the women who went to Paris at that time to become artists.Now from your reading what do you know about Paris…about the art world of Paris during the late 19th century?
MALE STUDENT:People came there from all over the world to study.
FEMALE STUDENT:It had a lot of art schools and artists who taught painting.There were…our book mentions classes for women artists.And it was a good place to go to study art.
MALE PROFESSOR:If you wanted to become an artist, Paris was not a good place to go, Paris was THE place to go. And women could find skilled instructors there.Before the late 19th century, if they…women who wanted to become artists had to take private lessons or learn from family members.They had more limited options than men did.But around 1870s, some artists in Paris began to offer classes for female students. These classes were for women only.And by the end of the 19th century, it became much more common for women and men to study together in the same classes.So…so within a few decades, things had changed significantly.
Ok. Let's back up again and talk about the time period from the 1860s to the 1880s and talk more about what happened in women's art classes.In 1868, a private art academy opened in Paris—and for decades it was probably the most famous private art school in the world.Its founder, Rodolphe Julian, was a canny businessman and quickly established his school as a premier destination for women artists.What he did was, after an initial trial period of mixed classes, he changed the school policy; he completely separated the men and women students.
FEMALE STUDENT:Any reason why he did that?
MALE PROFESSOR:Well. Like I said, Julian was a brilliant businessman, with progressive ideas.He saw that another small private art school where all the students were women was very popular at that time.And that's probably why he adopted the women-only classes.His classes were typically offered by ....by established artists and were held in the studio, the place where they painted.This was a big deal because finally women could study art in a formal setting.And there was another benefit to the group setting of these classes.The classes included weekly criticism.And the teacher would rank the art of all the students in the class from best to worst.How would you like it if I did that in this class? [joking]
MALE STUDENT:Hah......no way.
FEMALE STUDENT:But our textbook said that the competitive…the competition was good for women.It helped them see where they needed to improve.
MALE PROFESSOR:[Agreeing] Isn't that interesting? One woman artist, her name was Marie Bashkirtseff.Bashkirtseff once wrote how she felt about a classmate's work.She thought her classmates' art was much better than her own and it gave her an incentive to do better.Overall, the competition in the women's art classes gave women more confidence… confidence that they could also compete in the art world after their schooling.And even though Bashkirtseff could not study in the same classes as men, she was having an impact as an artist.Just look at the salon, what do you know about the salon?
FEMALE STUDENT:It was a big exhibition, a big art show that they had in Pairs every year.Their art had to be accepted by judges.
MALE STUDENT:It was a big deal you can make a name for yourself.
MALE PROFESSOR:You can have a painting or sculpture in the salon and go back to your home country saying you've been a success in the Paris.It was sort of uh, a seal of approval.It was a great encouragement for an artist's career.And by the last two decades of 19 century, one fifth of the paintings in the salon were by woman, much higher than in the past.
In fact, Marie Bashkirtseff self had a painting in the salon in 1881.Interestingly, this masterpiece, called In the Studio is a painting of the interior of Julian's art school.Um, it’s not in your textbook—I’ll show you the painting next week…Uh, the painting depicts an active, crowded studio with women drawing and painting a live model.It was actually Bashkirtseff actually follow Julian's savvy suggestion and painted her fellow students in a class at the school with the artist herself at far right.A great advertisement for the school when the painting eventually hung up at the salon, for a women's studio had never been painted before.
教授：如果你想成为艺术家，巴黎不是一个好去处，而是唯一之处。女性可以在那里学到技巧，并找到指导者。19 世纪以前，如果女性想成为艺术家，她们必须上私教，或者从家人那里学习。她们的选择比男性更有限。但是在19 世纪70 年代左右，巴黎的一些艺术家开始为女性学生开设课程，而且仅针对女性开设。在19 世纪晚期，男女在同一个班级里一起学习变的越来越普遍。因此在几十年内发生了巨大的改变。
好了，我们再回顾一下，谈谈从1860 年到19 世纪80 年代这个阶段女性艺术课程都发生了什么。在1868 年，巴黎开设了一个私人艺术课程，这可能在当时几十年内是世界上最著名的私人艺术学校了。创始人鲁道夫朱利安是一个精明的商人，而且很快就让他建立的学校成为了女性艺术家的首选去处。他怎么做的呢？在最初的男女混合课程的试验阶段过去后，他改变了学校的政策，他彻底的将男女学生分割开来。
教授：你可以在沙龙上展示一幅画或者一个雕塑，那么当你回到自己祖国的时候，你就可以说你在巴黎很成功。有点像是一种认可。对于艺术家来讲是一种极大的肯定。在19 世纪后20 年，沙龙上五分之一的作品都来自女性，远高于之前。