Official 04 Passage 1


Deer Populations of the Puget Sound


Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

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Deer in the Puget Sound area eat a wide variety of foods and migrate seasonally to find food.

正确答案: B C E
  • A.
    The balance of deer species in the Puget Sound region has changed over time, with the Columbian white-tailed deer now outnumbering other types of deer.
  • B.
    Deer populations naturally fluctuate, but early settlers in the Puget Sound environment caused an overall decline in the deer populations of the areas at that time.
  • C.
    In the long term, black-tailed deer in the Puget Sound area have benefitted from human activities through the elimination of their natural predators, and more and better food in deforested areas.
  • D.
    Because Puget Sound deer migrate, it was and still remains difficult to determine accurately how many deer are living at any one time in the western United States.
  • E.
    Although it was believed that human settlement of the American West would cause the total number of deer to decrease permanently, the opposite has occurred for certain types of deer.
  • F.
    Wildlife biologists have long been concerned that the loss of forests may create nutritional deficiencies for deer.

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  • 原文
  • 译文
  • Two species of deer have been prevalent in the Puget Sound area of Washington State in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The black-tailed deer, a lowland, west-side cousin of the mule deer of eastern Washington, is now the most common. The other species, the Columbian white-tailed deer, in earlier times was common in the open prairie country; it is now restricted to the low, marshy islands and flood plains along the lower Columbia River.

    Nearly any kind of plant of the forest understory can be part of a deer's diet. Where the forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed deer browses on huckleberry, salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather feeding. What keeps the black-tailed deer alive in the harsher seasons of plant decay and dormancy? One compensation for not hibernating is the built-in urge to migrate. Deer may move from high-elevation browse areas in summer down to the lowland areas in late fall. Even with snow on the ground, the high bushy understory is exposed; also snow and wind bring down leafy branches of cedar, hemlock, red alder, and other arboreal fodder.

    The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the north American frontier, Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River on November 14, 1805, in nearly starved circumstances. They had experienced great difficulty finding game west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their first elk. To keep 40 people alive that winter, they consumed approximately 150 elk and 20 deer. And when game moved out of the lowlands in early spring, the expedition decided to return east rather than face possible starvation. Later on in the early years of the nineteenth century, when Fort Vancouver became the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company, deer populations continued to fluctuate. David Douglas, Scottish botanical explorer of the 1830s, found a disturbing change in the animal life around the fort during the period between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832. A recent Douglas biographer states:" The deer which once picturesquely dotted the meadows around the fort were gone ?in 1832?, hunted to extermination in order to protect the crops."

    Reduction in numbers of game should have boded ill for their survival in later times. A worsening of the plight of deer was to be expected as settlers encroached on the land, logging, burning, and clearing, eventually replacing a wilderness landscape with roads, cities, towns, and factories. No doubt the numbers of deer declined still further. Recall the fate of the Columbian white-tailed deer, now in a protected status. But for the black-tailed deer, human pressure has had just the opposite effect. Wildlife zoologist Helmut Buechner(1953), in reviewing the nature of biotic changes in Washington through recorded time, says that "since the early 1940s, the state has had more deer than at any other time in its history, the winter population fluctuating around approximately 320,000 deer (mule and black-tailed deer), which will yield about 65,000 of either sex and any age annually for an indefinite period."

    The causes of this population rebound are consequences of other human actions. First, the major predators of deer-wolves, cougar, and lynx-have been greatly reduced in numbers. Second, conservation has been insured by limiting times for and types of hunting. But the most profound reason for the restoration of high population numbers has been the fate of the forests. Great tracts of lowland country deforested by logging, fire, or both have become ideal feeding grounds of deer. In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive. The protein content of shade-grown vegetation, for example, was much lower than that for plants grown in clearings.

  • 在太平洋西北区的美国华盛顿州,有两种鹿在普吉特海湾非常普遍。最常见的黑尾鹿是华盛顿东部杂交鹿在西部的表亲,它们生活在低地。另一种哥伦比亚白尾鹿,从前在开阔的草原上很常见,而现在只能在低矮的沼泽岛屿地带和哥伦比亚河下游的河滩地区才能看到它们。



    鹿群数量的减少预示了它们今后生存的艰辛。当殖民者入侵它们的领地时,人类在它们生活的土地上进行采伐、焚烧,清除障碍,最终将公路、城市、城镇和工厂代替了荒野风景。毋庸置疑,鹿群的数量进一步减少。回想起来,哥伦比亚白尾鹿的命运,现在已经处于被保护地位。而对黑尾鹿来说,人类的压力反而产生了相反的效果。野生动物学家赫尔穆特•布希纳(1953)通过已有记录评论了华盛顿地区生物的自然变化,他说:“20世纪40年代早期,美国拥有比以往任何历史时期都多的鹿群,鹿群冬季的数量在接近32万只鹿(杂交和黑尾鹿)左右波动,在此之后的每一年不同年龄段的公鹿和母鹿数量分别会增加至65 000只。

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    The balance选项前半句是对的,但后半句与第一段的最后两句说反,应该是黑多,错。

    Deer populations选项对应原文第三段首句和第四段第二三句,正确。

    in the long term选项对应原文第五段首句,第二句和第四句,正确。