Official 50 Passage 2


The Achievement of Brazilian Independence


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It was only after the Portuguese court moved to Brazil that significant progress toward Brazilian independence began.

正确答案: C D F
  • A.
    Major conspiracies against Portuguese dominance developed in regions where governmental control over Brazil’s economy had produced a spirit of revolt among Brazilian merchants.
  • B.
    The presence of King João and his court in Rio de Janeiro created competition and tension with the Portuguese elites born in Brazil, who had no loyalties to the Portuguese crown.
  • C.
    King João effectively freed Brazil from Portugal’s political and economic control and in 1815 elevated Brazil to the legal status of a kingdom coequal with Portugal.
  • D.
    After the Portuguese revolution in 1820, Portugal attempted to reestablish complete control over Brazil; but although King João returned to Lisbon, Pedro, his son and heir, remained in Brazil.
  • E.
    After freeing itself from Portuguese control, Brazil almost immediately fell under the control of England, which used its economic power to advance Brazil’s local industry for England’s benefit.
  • F.
    In 1822 Dom Pedro refused Portugal’s demand that he return, declared Brazil’s independence, and by the year’s end had become constitutional Emperor of an independent Brazil.

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  • In contrast to the political anarchy, economic dislocation, and military destruction in Spanish America, Brazil`s drive toward independence from Portugal proceeded as a relatively bloodless transition between 1808 and 1822. The idea of Brazilian independence first arose in the late eighteenth century as a Brazilian reaction to the Portuguese policy of tightening political and economic control over the colony in the interests of the mother country. The first significant conspiracy against Portuguese rule was organized from 1788–1799 in the province of Minas Gerais, where rigid governmental control over the production and prices of gold and diamonds, as well as heavy taxes, caused much discontent. But this conspiracy never went beyond the stage of discussion and was easily discovered and crushed. Other conspiracies in the late eighteenth century as well as a brief revolt in 1817 reflected the influence of republican ideas over sections of the elite and even the lower strata of urban society. All proved abortive or were soon crushed. Were it not for an accident of European history, the independence of Brazil might have been long delayed.

    The French invasion of Portugal in 1807 followed by the flight of the Portuguese court (sovereign and government officers) to Rio de Janeiro brought large benefits to Brazil. Indeed, the transfer of the court in effect signified achievement of Brazilian independence. The Portuguese prince and future King João VI opened Brazil`s ports to the trade of friendly nations, permitted the rise of local industries, and founded the Bank of Brazil. In 1815 he elevated Brazil to the legal status of a kingdom coequal with Portugal. In one sense, however, Brazil's new status signified the substitution of one dependence for another. Freed from Portuguese control, Brazil came under the economic dominance of England, which obtained major tariff concessions and other privileges by the Strangford Treaty of 1810 between Portugal and Great Britain. The treaty provided for the importation of British manufactures into Brazil and the export of Brazilian agricultural produce to Great Britain. One result was an influx of cheap machine-made goods that swamped the handicrafts industry of the country.

    Brazilian elites took satisfaction in Brazil`s new role and the growth of educational, cultural, and economic opportunities for their class. But the feeling was mixed with resentment toward the thousands of Portuguese courtiers (officials) and hangers-on who came with the court and who competed with Brazilians for jobs and favors. Thus, the change in the status of Brazil sharpened the conflict between Portuguese elites born in Brazil and elites born in Portugal and loyal to the Portuguese crown.

    The event that precipitated the break with the mother country was the revolution of 1820 in Portugal. The Portuguese revolutionaries framed a liberal constitution for the kingdom, but they were conservative or reactionary in relation to Brazil. They demanded the immediate return of King João to Lisbon, an end to the system of dual monarchy that he had devised, and the restoration of the Portuguese commercial monopoly. Timid and vacillating, King João did not know which way to turn. Under the pressure of his courtiers, who hungered to return to Portugal and their lost estates, he finally approved the new constitution and sailed for Portugal. He left behind him, however, his son and heir, Pedro, and in a private letter advised him that in the event the Brazilians should demand independence, he should assume leadership of the movement and set the crown of Brazil on his head.

    Soon it became clear that the Portuguese parliament intended to set the clock back by abrogating all the liberties and concessions won by Brazil since 1808. One of its decrees insisted on the immediate return of Pedro from Brazil. The pace of events moved more rapidly in 1822. On January 9, urged on by Brazilian advisers who perceived a golden opportunity to make an orderly transition to independence without the intervention of the masses, Pedro refused an order from the parliament to return to Portugal, saying famously, "I remain". On September 7, regarded by all Brazilians as Independence Day, he issued the even more celebrated proclamation, "Independence or death!" In December 1822, having overcome slight resistance by Portuguese troops, Dom Pedro was formally proclaimed constitutional Emperor of Brazil.

  • 与西班牙美洲地区的无政府状态、经济混乱和军事破坏相反,在1808年至1822年间,巴西脱离葡萄牙走向独立则相对来说是一次不流血的政变。 巴西独立的想法最早是在18世纪末产生的,葡萄牙为了自己国家的利益,加强对巴西殖民地政治和经济的控制,而巴西独立的想法正是对葡萄牙这种做法的反抗。 巴西在1788年到1799年间,在米纳斯吉拉斯州境内,组织了对葡萄牙统治的第一次重要的反叛,在那里严苛的政府控制了黄金和宝石的生产及价格,并让人民负担沉重的捐税,引起了诸多的不满。 但这次阴谋从没有诉诸行动,它很快就被发现并被镇压了。 18世纪末期发动的其他反叛,以及1817年的一次短暂的起义,都反映出独立思想对一些精英,甚至是对下层社会所造成的影响。 所有的这些叛变都流产了,或很快就被镇压了。 如果不是欧洲历史上的一次意外事件,巴西的独立可能会延后很久。

    法国于1807年入侵葡萄牙,随后葡萄牙政府(最高统治者和政府官员)逃到了里约热内卢,这给巴西带来了巨大的利益。 确实,政府的转移事实上意味着巴西的独立的实现。 葡萄牙王子兼未来的国王若奥六世,开放了巴西的港口,与友好国家进行贸易往来,使地方产业的崛起成为可能,并建立了巴西银行。 在1815年,他将巴西提升为巴西王国,使之与葡萄牙享有同等的法律地位。 然而,从某种意义上说,巴西的新地位意味着一种依存关系被另一种依存关系所替代。 摆脱了葡萄牙的控制,巴西受到了英国经济的统治,英国通过1810年与葡萄牙签订的斯特兰福德条约,获得了重大的关税减让和其他特权。 该条约规定了哪些英国商品可以进口到巴西以及哪些巴西农产品可以出口到英国。 这导致的一个结果就是,大量廉价的机器制造的商品淹没了巴西的手工业。

    巴西的精英们对巴西的新角色以及精英阶层教育、文化、经济机会的增加感到满意。 但这种情感中还夹杂着对数千名葡萄牙廷臣(官员)和与他们一道来的食客们的愤恨和不满,这些食客与巴西人竞争工作机会和利益。 因此,巴西地位的变化加剧了出生在巴西的葡萄牙精英和出生在葡萄牙并忠于葡萄牙王室的精英之间的矛盾。

    促成巴西与宗主国(葡萄牙)决裂的事件是1820年的葡萄牙资产阶级革命。 葡萄牙的革命者为国家制定了自由宪法,但是在处理巴西关系方面他们显得很保守甚至反动。 他们要求国王若奥六世立刻回到里斯本,结束他所制定的双君主制,并恢复葡萄牙商业垄断。 国王若奥六世非常胆小和优柔寡断,他不知道该选择哪条路。 廷臣们都渴望回到葡萄牙,回到他们所失去的家园,在廷臣施加的压力下,若奥六世最终批准了新宪法并乘船回到了葡萄牙。 然而,他把他的儿子兼继承人佩德罗留在了巴西,并且在一封私信中,他劝告佩德罗如果巴西要求独立的话,他应该领导这场运动并将巴西的皇冠放到自己的头上(加冕成为巴西的皇帝)。

    很快,葡萄牙议会就企图通过废除巴西自1808年以来所获得的一切自由和特权,来让时光倒流。 其中一条法令要求佩德罗立即从巴西回来。 事件的进展在1822年变得更快。 1月9日,巴西幕僚们认为这是一个千载难逢的机会能让巴西在排除干扰的情况下有秩序地过度为独立的王国,在幕僚们的劝导下,佩德罗拒绝了葡萄牙议会要求他回到葡萄牙的命令,说出了那句著名的:“我将留在这里。” 9月7日,在这个被巴西人定为独立日的日子,佩德罗发布了更为著名的宣言,“不独立,毋宁死!” 1822年12月,在镇压了葡萄牙部队的轻微反抗之后,佩德罗正式加冕成为巴西的立宪制皇帝。
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    C:King Joao选项:对应文章第二段;

    D:After the Portuguese revolution选项:对应文章第四段;

    F:In 1822选项:对应文章最后一段;

    A:Major conspiracies选项:对应第一段,但这是一个细节,不属于文章主要内容,而且文章中也没有说“激起了巴西商人的不满”

    B:The presence选项:与文章内容不符对应文章第三段。文中说competition是发生在巴西的精英与葡萄牙食客之间,而tension是发生在出生在巴西的葡萄牙精英和出生在葡萄牙并忠于葡萄牙王室的精英之间;

    E:After freeing itself选项:对应文章第二段文中并没有说促进巴西当地产业的发展,所以C选项后半句话错误