Your listeners will understand your talk better ifyou organize what you say in a logical sequence orlinear pattern. This means that you tell the listenerswhat you are going to talk about and then gothrough the points you want to make. The mostcommon pattern of organization is outlined below:Introductory statement
Connecting ideas by using transition words and phrases tells your listeners the relationshipof one idea to the next. You can signal to your listener that you are going to put events in asequence, add information, or make a comparison. You can signal that you want toemphasize or clarify a point. Using transition words and phrases helps your listener followthe flow of your ideas. Read the following example without transitional expressions:In my physics class, we did lots of experiments that helped clarify scientific principles. Iunderstood those principles better by doing those experiments.
3. 解释或定义陌生概念In order to help your listeners understand, you may need to define a term that you use inyour response. Read the following example:
If the speaker does not define the term and listeners do not know what telemark skiing is,they might not understand the rest of the passage. Sometimes listeners can guess themeaning through the context of the passage, but sometimes they cannot. Here is thedefinition this speaker gave of telemark skiing:That means skiing using telemark skis.
Even though the speaker defined telemark skiing, listeners still may not understand whatit means because the speaker defined the term with the same word. To effectively define aword, use a three-part definition:1. State the word or phrase to be defined.
Your listener can understand the flow of your ideas better if you use parallel structureswhen you speak. Read the following incorrect example:My teacher gave interesting assignments and motivating the students.
When a speaker keeps repeating a word or phrase, listeners can get confused. Read thefollowing example:My teacher wrote the assignment on the chalkboard. The assignment was on thechalkboard until the teacher erased the assignment after we had all done the assignment.
Your listener can get confused if you are not consistent. Look at the following example:My teacher brought five paper bags to school one day. He put us into groups and gaveeach group a bag. You have to take the objects out of the bags in turn and then a person hasto tell a story involving the object from the bag.