Official 27 Set 6

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
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Primary Colors

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Various ways color theory is used in different fields

  • B. Various ways artists can use primary colors

  • C. Aspects of color theory that are the subject of current research

  • D. The development of the first theory of primary colors

显示答案 正确答案: D

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a studio art class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:OK... As-as you probably know, primary colors are, theoretically speaking, the basic colors from which all other colors can be made.But as you'll find out when you start working on your painting projects, the three primary colors-red, blue, yellow-don't always make the best secondary colors.Combining red and blue, you'll probably never get a fantastic violet.To get a nice violet, you'll have to add white.Combining yellow and blue, you'll almost never get a satisfactory green.You're better off using a pure green pigment...The idea of "primary colors"-and specifically the idea of red, yellow, and blue being the primary colors-didn't exist until about 200 years ago.Until then, the dominant theory about color was one that had been proposed by Isaac Newton.

    Newton gave a scientific and objective explanation of colors.He used a prism to break white light down into the various colors of the spectrum, and he theorized-rightly so-that different colors are essentially different wavelengths of light.But he made no mention of "primary" colors.That idea came from- or was at least published by-a man named Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.

    Goethe was a well-known author; he wrote many famous novels, plays, poems... So why did he start thinking about colors?Well, Goethe was part of the Romantic movement in Western literature... and he was a Romantic through-and-through, meaning that he explained objects and phenomena in terms of the spiritual, emotional impact they had, as opposed to explaining them in terms of their scientific nature; he rejected an objective understanding of color in favor of a more subjective understanding.He believed that when we see color, it stimulates our emotions.And different colors appeal to or inspire different emotions in different people.

    FEMALE STUDENT:That sounds like psychology.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, color theory is used in psychology too; some psychologists do use their field's version of color theory to diagnose and treat patients...Um, anyway, Goethe conducted a number of experiments trying to figure out which colors corresponded to which emotions...And, in terms of that goal, he wasn't very successful.But... his experiments actually did show a lot about the relationships between colors themselves, about how colors change when placed next to other colors, about how they interact with one another.Scientists studying optics and chromatics today still marvel at his findings...But Goethe wasn't really able to establish a clear connection between colors and emotions.

    Then, in 1806, he received a letter from a relatively unknown German artist, a painter named Philipp Otto Runge.In the letter, Runge outlined his own color theory, specifically the connections he made between colors and emotions.And his ideas about what colors symbolized, a-about the emotions that different colors inspired were based on the colors red, yellow, and blue.Runge's choice of red, yellow, and blue had nothing to do with what we know from modern-day chromatics-it had to do with Runge's complex system of symbolism, his experience of nature, particularly with his experience of the quality of light at various times of the day- morning, noon, and night.So each color had a specific symbolic value.Well, four years later, Goethe published a book entitled Color Lesson.In Color Lesson, Goethe [lightly sarcastic] coincidentally cites the same colors as primary colors.At this point, Goethe was already a well-known author, so he was easily able to popularize this idea of primary colors, and specifically the idea of red, yellow, and blue as the primary colors.

    FEMALE STUDENT:But he didn't mention Runge?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, he did put Runge's letter in the book, at the end. But he added a disclaimer, implying that Runge's letter didn't influence his work.[Sarcastic] Apparently, what Goethe was saying was that they just happened to come up with the same theory at the same time.

  • 旁白:听一段工作室艺术的讲座。

    教授:好了,你们大概也知道,理论上说,原色即能造出其它颜色的基础色。但当你在做你的绘画项目时,你们应该会发现,三原色---红、蓝、黄---它们不总能造出最好的间色。把红和蓝混合,很有可能你得不到很漂亮的紫色。要想调出很美的紫色,你还要加白色。把黄和蓝混合,你很可能永远都得不出一个令人满意的绿色。你还不如用纯绿色颜料调呢。“原色”的概念---即红黄蓝是(三)原色的概念---直到200年前才出现。此前,关于颜色的主流理论是艾萨克·牛顿提出的。

    牛顿对颜色做出了科学且客观的解释。他用棱镜把白光分解成光谱上不同颜色的光,然后他提出理论---不同的颜色本质上是不同波长的光。但他完全没有提及原色。这个概念是由约翰·沃尔夫冈·冯·歌德提出的,或至少说是由他出版的。

    歌德是一位著名作家;他写了很多著名小说、戏剧和诗歌...那么他为什么会开始思考颜色呢?歌德也参与了西方文学界的浪漫主义运动,他自己就是彻彻底底的浪漫主义者,也就是说,他解释事物和现象时,往往从精神、或情感影响层面出发,以反对那些从科学本质层面来解释事物现象的理论,他不接受对颜色的客观理解,更支持主观理解。他认为当我们看见颜色,情感就被激发出来。不同的颜色对不同的人能激发不同的情感。

    学生:听起来很像心理学。

    教授:颜色理论也应用在心理学中;一些心理学家会运用心理学中的颜色理论来诊断并治疗病人。不管怎样,歌德做了一系列实验以找出什么颜色对应什么情绪。以此目的来说,他不怎么成功。但他的实验确实发现了颜色本身之间的联系,即当一种颜色放在另一种颜色旁时,会有什么变化,颜色之间是怎么相互作用的。今天研究光学和色彩学的科学家们仍惊叹于他的发现。但歌德并不能在色彩与情绪之间建立起清晰的联系。

    在1806年,他收到一封信,来自一位相对无名的德国艺术家,这位画家叫菲利普·奥托·朗格。在信中,朗格概述了自己的颜色理论,特别是他建立的色彩与情绪之间的联系。他关于颜色象征的思想,关于不同的颜色所能激起不同情绪的理论,是基于红、黄、蓝这些颜色的。朗格选择红黄蓝,和现代色彩学理论没什么关系,而是与朗格自己关于象征主义的复杂系统有关,他对自然的体验,尤其是对一天中不同时间的不同光亮的体验,比如早上、中午和晚上。每种颜色都有特殊的象征价值。四年后,歌德出版了一本叫《色彩课》的书。在《色彩课》中,歌德恰好把同种色彩称为原色。此时歌德已经是个很有名的作家了,他很容易就把原色的概念推广出去,特别是把红、黄、蓝作为(三)原色的概念推广出去。

    学生:他没有提到朗格?

    教授:他把朗格的信收入书的末页了。但他附上了一封免责声明,暗示朗格的信对他的作品没有影响。很明显,歌德声称,他们只是恰好同一时间想出了同样的理论罢了。

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    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位

    The idea of primary colors, and specifically the idea of red, yellow and blue being THE primary colors, didn’t exist until about 200 years ago. Until then, the dominant theory about color was one that had been proposed by Isaac Newton. Newton gave a scientific and objective explanation of colors.

    选项分析

    文章先描述了primary color 的概念,然后讲到dominant theory objective explanation 随后又提到color spiritual emotional impact 最后说到symbolic value.

    D选项即为对话核心名词idea的同义替换,是对全文主旨最准确的概括

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