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Dadasim

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What is the main purpose of the lecture?
  • A. To explain the historical conditions that inspired Dada artists

  • B. To discuss examples of Dada paintings and sculptures

  • C. To describe how Dada was presented theatrically

  • D. To show the influence of Dada on today's performing artists

显示答案 正确答案: C

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Alright, so last week, we started talking about the painters and sculptors who were part of the art movement called Dada.But I don't want you to think the ideas we introduced last time were limited to painting, sculpture, that sorta thing.So today, I want to move beyond the visual arts and talk a bit about Dada in the performing arts, in theater.But let's start by reviewing what Dada is, OK?

    As you'll recall, Dada began in Switzerland, in the city of Zurich,in 1916.The artists who started it were reacting against traditional notions of uh—of beauty, of reason, of progress, which had been the standards of Western thought since the eighteenth century.They looked around and ...well, I mean, the First World War was raging, so they didn't see much beauty, reason, or progress in the world.Instead, they saw a world that was chaotic, random...a world that didn't make sense.And if that's the way the world was...well, they wanted their art to reflect that.

    So let's-let's review a couple of key ideas that were the backbone of Dada art.First, the Dadaists wanted to completely reject the Classical idea of art.Classical ideas like proportion, balance, all the things you think about when you think about great art."Great art" involved the reason, the logic, the beauty that the Dadaists wanted to overthrow.So, uh, well, y'know, to—to a Dadaist, Classical artwork was a reflection of outdated thinking.That's why Dadaists created sculptures like the ones we saw last week.Remember the stool with the bicycle wheel mounted on top?I wouldn't exactly call that beautiful, would you? But of course it wasn't meant to be. That was the point.

    OK, so another key Dada idea we talked about was the embracing of randomness, right?Uh, if life is random, said the Dadaists, why would we make art that has order and logic?And so we have that collage we looked at where the artist took different, y'know, cut-out squares of colored paper, threw them onto the canvas, and wherever they landed, that was the composition of the work.

    Another favorite of the Dadaists was something called chance poetry.A chance poet would pull words out of a hat, and that would be, well, that would make up the—the poem.And this idea of chance and randomness was a key element of Dadaism because the whole world seemed so random to them.

    So now let's take a look at how Dadaist ideas were presented to audiences in highly unconventional... well, I’m not even sure how to categorize these theatrical events.I suppose you'd just have to call them shows.These shows started in Zurich, in a place called the Cabaret Voltaire.

    The rejection of Classical Western art—well, you see this in the nature of what took place at the Cabaret Voltaire.They didn't put on plays or operas there.What they did was throw out all conventions; they mixed everything and anything together.They would...­ it might start with somebody reading a poem, then somebody else playing an instrument, followed by a display of paintings, followed by somebody else chanting, followed by somebody else banging on a big drum, and someone dressed in a robot costume, uh, jumping up and down.So it’s not like a play … there’s no real plot development here, like you’d find in a traditional theatrical performance.

    The performers at the Cabaret Voltaire would also get the audience involved, which was extremely unusual.Think about a traditional play…the action’s self-contained.The actors act as if there's no one watching, right? It's like a world unto itself.Well, at the Cabaret Voltaire, audience members could get up on stage and dance or chant, or shout and sing from their seats.And every night would be different because there would be a different audience and a different set of acts and displays.

    So all this could get pretty chaotic: No barriers between the performers and the audience.And no barriers between kinds of art, either.Think about it. Poetry, paintings, music, dance...all on the same stage, and often at the same time!This is what the Dadaists had in mindwhen they set out to make art that reflected their own idea of reality. It didn't make sense.But why should it?

  • 旁白:听一段艺术史课程。

    教授:好了。我们上周开始讲了被称为“达达主义”的艺术运动中的一些画家和雕塑家。但我不希望你们觉得我们上周讲的内容仅限于绘画、雕塑,诸如此类。所以今天我想跨出视觉艺术的范围,讲一下表演艺术里(剧院里)的达达主义。先回顾一下什么是达达主义,好吗?

    正如你们记得的,达达主义起源于1916年,在瑞士的苏黎世市。这些研究达达主义的艺术家反对关于美、理性和进步的传统观点,这些自18世纪以来都是西方思想中的(艺术)标准。他们将目光投向别处。而且,我的意思是,当时一战正处于战火纷飞之时,所以他们没在这世界上看到多少美好、理性或进步。相反,他们看到的世界混乱不堪,充满变数,整个世界一点都不合理。如果这就是世界,他们想要自己的艺术将之反映出来。

    让我们回顾一下一些主要的观点,它们是达达主义的支柱。首先,达达主义者希望能彻底摒弃艺术的传统观点。这些传统观点包括比例、平衡……所有你在想伟大艺术时能想到的东西。伟大的艺术包括理性,逻辑与美,而这些正是达达主义者想要摒弃的。你明白的,对于达达主义者来说,古典艺术作品是思想过时的表现。这就是为什么达达主义者创造出我们上周看到的那种雕塑。记得顶上装了自行车轮的凳子吗?我不会说那很美,你们会吗?但当然了,那并不是为了美观。这是关键!

    好了。另一种我们说的重要达达主义思想是欣然接受偶然性,对吗?如果正如达达主义者所言,生活充满偶然,为什么我们要创造有秩序有逻辑的艺术?所以我们就有了我们所见的拼贴画——一位艺术家拿了各种剪成方形的彩纸片, 把它们扔到画布上,它们的落点就构成了一幅画。

    达达主义者的另一项最爱是叫随机诗歌的东西。随机诗人会从帽子里抽取单词,这……这就成了一首诗!而这种随机性和偶然性的思想是达达主义的重要元素,因为对她们来说,整个世界都充满随机性。

    现在让我们来看看达达主义思想是如何以高度非传统的方式呈现给观众的,我甚至不知道怎样对这些戏剧性事件进行分类。我想你们就叫它们“表演”就行。这些表演最初在苏黎世的一个叫伏尔泰酒馆的地方上演。

    对古典西方艺术的摒弃—你可以从伏尔泰酒馆里的表演中看到这一点。他们没有上演戏剧或歌剧。他们所做的就是把所有的传统扔掉;他们把所有的东西都混在一起。他们会……可能从某人朗诵一首诗歌开始,然后一些人会演奏乐器,接着会有绘画展出,然后有人唱赞美诗,又有人猛敲大鼓,还有人穿着机器人戏服上蹿下跳。这不是话剧...这里面没有真正的情节发展,就像你在传统剧院戏剧表演中看到的那样。

    伏尔泰旅馆里的表演者会让观众参与进来,这非常罕见。想想传统戏剧吧,表演是不受他人影响的。演员表演得似乎没人在看,对吧?就是一个自己的世界。在伏尔泰旅馆,观众能走上舞台,跳舞、唱圣歌,或在座位上大声叫喊,大声歌唱。每天晚上都不一样,因为观众都不一样,表演内容和展览也不一样。

    这一切都非常混乱:表演者和观众之间没有明显的界限。正如不同的艺术之间也无界限。想想吧:诗歌、绘画、音乐、舞蹈…这一切都在同一个舞台上,而且往往在同一时间。这就是达达主义者想的东西。当他们决定要创造能反映自己对现实的想法的艺术时,都是不合理的。但为什么要合理呢?

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    原文定位:

    All right. So last week we started talking about the painters and sculptors who were part of the art movement called Dada. But I dont want you to think the ideas we introduced last time were limited to painting, sculpture, that sort of thing. So today I want to move beyond the visual arts and talk a bit about Dada in the performing arts, in theater.

    选项分析:

    教授说今天要聊聊Dada在表演艺术,比如说戏剧方面的内容。对应C选项

    其他选项无关

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