Official 51 Set 2

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Audubon The Famous Illustrator

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What does the professor mainly discuss?
  • A. The steps involved in publishing illustrated books in the 1800s

  • B. The influence of Audubon’s The Birds of America on science in the 1800s

  • C. The way in which an illustrator’s work has both artistic and scientific significance

  • D. The need for accuracy in scientific illustrations

显示答案 正确答案: C

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class. The professor has been discussing illustrated books.

    MALE PROFESSOR:I want to take a look at one particular book to give you an idea about what was involved in publishing illustrated books in the 1800s.The book’s called The Birds of America, and the illustrator was John James Audubon.

    So … The Birds of America … four volumes which contained illustrations of nearly every bird in the United States, over 400 birds, all hand-colored, all painted life-sized, the larger birds printed on the largest printing paper available at that time.This required a lot of dedication, and Audubon is best remembered as an incredibly meticulous, accurate artist, a very accomplished illustrator of the natural world.And while there were other artists working on similar projects at the same time,Audubon’s book remains the most well-known and successful of its kind.But, uh, let’s talk a bit about Audubon himself first.

    First of all, Audubon was not a traditional painter,and by this, I mean that he didn’t work in oils.He preferred to use watercolor and pastel crayons, and he worked on paper instead of on canvas.The thing is, Audubon considered the illustrations in his book, not the original watercolors, to be the finished product.His watercolors were merely preparatory studies, most of which were painted while he was observing birds in the wild.These watercolors were then sent to his printer, who created the final prints for the book.And Audubon was so concerned with accuracy that he often scribbled notes to the printer around the edges of these original watercolors.

    In fact, you might question whether producing a work of art was even Audubon’s goal.Now, when I look at an Audubon illustration, I see a work of art.But, it may make more sense to consider Audubon, first and foremost, as a naturalist, as a scientist.See, the early nineteenth century when Audubon was painting was a time of major scientific inquiry.And an essential way of spreading scientific knowledge was through illustrated books.

    FEMALE STUDENT:So what did Audubon consider himself? An artist or a scientist?

    MALE PROFESSOR:I’m not sure the distinction between the two was all that clear in the 1800s.I think we can accurately state that … that the driving force in his art was getting the science right.And this was perhaps a point that critics of his artwork at the time just didn’t appreciate.

    Audubon also studied birds in ways that didn’t directly inform his art.Uh, you know what bird banding is, right?A bird has a band attached to its foot so we can learn about things like migration patterns.Well, the first recorded instance of anyone doing that, it was Audubon.Another example, a common belief at the time was that vultures use their sense of smell to find food.Audubon didn’t believe that, so he tested it.He put a large painting of a dead sheep in a field, and sure enough: vultures found it and started pecking at it.

    Now, Audubon’s work was very accurate, and we know this because we can compare his illustrations to the birds around us.But sometimes it’s not possible to check.There’re actually several birds in his book that no one’s ever seen.These are sometimes called Audubon’s “mystery birds,” because even though he drew them, there’s no evidence that they exist in the wild.For someone who’s respected as a naturalist, isn’t it strange to think that he drew some birds that don’t appear to be real?

    For example, there’s an illustration that appears to be a type of warbler, a small bird.It has a white ring around its eyes and white bars on its wings.No one’s ever seen a warbler like this,so some people wonder if Audubon maybe forgot certain details about this bird when he painted it,or that he copied another artist’s work. But considering that Audubon was such a meticulous artist.Well, there might be a better answer.

    Hybridization is something that’s well known in birds.And it definitely explains a rather unique-looking duck Audubon painted.He himself suggested that maybe it wasn’t an unknown species, but a hybrid, born from two different species.Since then, this particular crossing of species has actually been recorded, both in the wild and in captivity,so it turns out that Audubon was right, and this duck actually was a hybrid.

  • 旁白:请听一段艺术史讲座的节选。教授正在讨论插画书籍。

    教授:我想要给你们看一本特别的书,让你们对19世纪出版的插图书有一个大致的了解。这本书叫做《美洲鸟类》,插画家是约翰·詹姆斯·奥杜邦。

    《美洲鸟类》一共有四卷,这本书里几乎囊括了美国所有鸟类的插图,超过400只鸟类,都是手绘的,都是活鸟大小的,最大的鸟在当时可用的最大印刷纸上印刷。这需要强烈的奉献精神,从而奥杜邦则被人们铭记为一位极其细致,准确的艺术家,一位很有造诣的自然世界插画家。尽管当时还有别的艺术家也在为相似的话题作画,但奥杜邦的书仍然是同类作品中最著名和最成功的。但我们先来看看奥杜邦这个人。

    首先,奥杜邦不是一个传统的画家,这句话的意思是,他不是画油画的。他更喜欢用水彩和蜡笔,他在纸上作画而不是在画布上。问题是,奥杜邦认为他书里的插画,不是原始的水彩画,是他所完成的作品。他的水彩画仅仅是准备状态,其中大部分是他在野外观察鸟类时候画的。这些水彩画随后被送到他的印刷商那里,印刷商为这本书制作了最后的印刷稿。奥杜邦太在意精确度了,以至于他经常在这些水彩画初稿边缘上写一些给印刷商的笔记。

    事实上,你可能会质疑,制作一件艺术品是否是奥杜邦的目标。当我在看奥杜邦的插画的时候,我看到的是一件艺术品。但是,把奥杜邦首先看作一个博物学家,一个科学家可能更有意义。你们看,在奥杜邦创作画作的十九世纪早期是一个主要的科学探索时期。并且传播科学知识的一种基本关键方式是通过那些插画书籍。

    学生:所以奥杜邦是怎么看待他自己的呢?一位艺术家还是一位科学家?

    教授:我也不确定这两者在十九世纪的时候区别是否鲜明。我认为我们可以比较准确地说...他艺术创作的驱动力是让科学正确。这可能是那个时期的批评家们对于他的艺术作品所不理解的点。

    奥杜邦研究鸟类的方式并没有直接影响到他的艺术。啊,你们知道什么是鸟类环志(套圈),对吧?一只鸟的脚上有一条带子,这样我们就能了解(它们)迁徙的模式。第一次有记录的这种研究就是奥杜邦做的。另一个例子是,当时人们普遍认为秃鹰用它们的嗅觉来寻找食物。奥杜邦并不相信这个,所以,他验证了一下。他把一幅画着一只死羊的大油画放在一块地里,果然,秃鹫发现了它,开始啄它。

    奥杜邦的作品很准确,我们之所以知道这一点,是因为他画上的鸟和真鸟差不多。但是有些时候是无法检验的。事实上,在他的书中有几只鸟是没有人见过的。这些鸟被称为奥杜邦的神秘鸟儿,因为即使他画了这些鸟,也没有证据证明它们真的在野外存在。对于一个受人尊敬的自然主义者来说,想到他画了一些看起来不像真的鸟不是很奇怪吗?

    例如,有一幅插图似乎是一种莺,一种小鸟。在它的眼睛周围有一圈白色的环,翅膀上有白色横线。没有人见过这种莺,所以有些人想知道奥杜邦是不是在画这只鸟的时候忘记了一些细节,或者他抄袭了其他艺术家的作品。但是考虑到奥杜邦是一个如此一丝不苟的艺术家。嗯,也许有更好的答案。

    杂交是鸟类中知名的现象。这也解释了为什么奥杜邦画了一只看起来很独特的鸭子。他自己提出,也许这并不是一个未知的物种,而是两个不同物种的杂交后代。自从那时候开始,这种特别的杂交物种就被记录了下来,不管是在野生鸟类中的还是在圈养鸟类中的。结果证明奥杜邦是对的,这只鸭子实际上是杂交的。

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  • 本题对应音频:
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    题型分类:主旨内容题

    题干分析:问教授主要说什么,很典型问主旨内容的方式

    原文定位:

    MALE PROFESSOR:I want to take a look at one particular book to give you an idea about what was involved in publishing illustrated books in the 1800s. The book’s called The Birds of America, and the illustrator was John James Audubon.

    Now, when I look at an Audubon illustration, I see a work of art. But it may make more sense to consider Audubon first and foremost as a naturalist … as a scientist.

    选项分析:主旨内容题要根据全文信息来进行选择,全文主要是讲Audubon是如何为illustrated books进行创作,不仅仅是艺术,更是科学,选C。A中的steps,B中的influence of the book,D中的need for accuracy都不是重点。

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