Official 32 Set 6

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Architect Harriet Morrison Irwin

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What are the speakers mainly discussing?
  • A. An architect from the United States and a house design she created

  • B. The disadvantages of houses based on a square design

  • C. Difficulties faced by residential architects in the nineteenth century

  • D. Women who had a major influence on architecture in the United States

显示答案 正确答案: A

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an architectural history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:So, last week we started our unit on residential architecture in the United States.So today we'll be surveying a number of architects who made contributions to residential architecture in the nineteenth century.Now, it's worth noting that people who designed homes at that time probably had to deal with a certain amount of discouragement, since there were other architects who thought it was more respectable to design the kind of buildings and maybe other structures that were less… less utilitarian in their function.In fact, an article from an 1876 issue of a journal called The American Architect and Building News stated that-and this is a quote-they stated that "the planning of houses isn't architecture at all…"!So keep that journal article in mind as we look at the work of an architect named Harriet Morrison Irwin.

    Harriet Morrison Irwin was from the South, born in North Carolina in 1828.At the time, there weren't many architects from the southern United States, and, as you might imagine, very few of them were women.So, Irwin was really a pretty exceptional case.And she wasn't even formally trained as an architect-her educational background was in literature.Yes, Vicky?

    FEMALE STUDENT:So, she just had, like, a natural gift for architecture?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes. She was actually a writer for several years… but she did have a penchant for math and engineering, so… she read a lot about it on her own.Um, especially the architectural essays written by the British critic, John Ruskin.

    [leading] And John Ruskin believed… what?

    FEMALE STUDENT:Um, that buildings should have a lot of access to the outdoors…to nature.Ruskin said that being close to nature was great for people's mental and physical health.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Right. So, that was an influence.Now, Harriet Irwin's contribution to architecture was… relatively minor, but still quite interesting and unique.She designed a house with a hexagonal shape. Josh?

    MALE STUDENT:[slightly confused] A house with six sides…instead of the standard,y'know, four-sided home?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yeah. The rooms inside the house were also hexagonal, six-sided.

    So, one important thing was that the rooms were arranged around a chimney in the center of the house, which could provide heat for the whole house, through flues, ah, small air passageways into each room.As opposed to having a, uh, fireplace in every room, which would require more cleaning and make the air inside the house dirtier.

    The house's shape also allowed for more windows…each room had a large wall that could fit a couple of big windows, giving every room a nice view of the outdoors.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Plus, there'd be good airflow through the house.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes, in warm weather when you can open all the windows.Good. The doors to the house, as well…um, the house didn't have a "main entrance" or any hallways.So, there could be a couple of entry doors in different places, which, like the windows, provided ready access to the outdoors.

    So, what other advantages might there be to hexagonal rooms? [no takers]OK… think about cleaning. What part of a room is usually the hardest to clean, like, to sweep, with a broom?

    MALE STUDENT:Oh… the corners!Because in square or rectangular rooms,the corners are at ninety-degree angles.It's hard to reach all the dust that gathers in the corners.[reasoning it out] But if Irwin's rooms were closer to a circle than a square, it'd be easier to reach all the dust and dirt with a broom… Right?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Exactly.[shifting topic] Now… um, biographers who wrote about Irwin in the nineteenth century, I feel sorta downplayed the ingenuity of her design.But I think if she had designed this house today, those same biographers would praise her for coming up with a floor plan that emphasized function… efficient function of a house, as well as a design that's creative and unique.In any case, three houses were built in Irwin's time that used her hexagonal design.And, in 1869, when she was 41, Irwin became the first woman in the United States to receive a patent for an architectural design.And that speaks volumes, if you ask me.

  • 旁白:听一段建筑史的讲座。

    教授:在上周,我们开始了关于美国住宅建筑的单元。今天我们将学习一些在19世纪对住宅建筑做出了贡献的建筑师。值得注意的是,在当时设计房屋的人可能需要面对一些挫折,因为其他建筑师认为它不如其他非实用的建筑物等等的设计值得尊敬。事实上,在1876年发行的一篇《美国建筑师和建筑新闻》的期刊里曾说过,引用他们的话是“设计房屋根本不属于建筑学”!所以记着这篇期刊的文章,我们来看看一个叫哈里特·莫里森·欧文的建筑师的作品。

    哈里特·莫里森·欧文来自南方,于1828年出生在北卡罗来纳州。当时的美国南部没有多少建筑师,而且正如你们想象的,这些人中极少有女性。所以欧文是一个非常特殊的情况。她甚至没有正式受过建筑师方面的训练,她的教育背景是在文学方面。维琪,什么事?

    学生:所以她就是有一种在建筑方面的自然天赋吗?

    教授:是的,实际上她当过好几年作家...但她确实特别的喜好数学和工程,所以她靠自己读了很多关于建筑方面的内容。尤其是当时英国的评论家约翰·拉斯金著的建筑论文。

    而约翰·拉斯金是怎么想的?

    学生:建筑物应该更多地接近户外,接近自然。拉斯金表示,接近大自然对人们的身心健康都非常有好处。

    教授:没错,所以这对她是一个影响。哈里特·欧文对建筑的贡献相对较小,不过依然是很有趣和独特的。她设计了一个六角形房子。乔希?

    学生:一个有六面的房子吗?而不是,你知道的,标准的四面的房子吗?

    教授:是的,而且在房子里面的房间也都是六边形的,就是说房间有六面。

    所以一个很重要的事情是,房间围绕着位于房屋中心的烟囱建造,这样可以通过烟洞给整个房子提供热量,经过小的空气通道送达到每个房间。而不是在每个房间都做一个壁炉,那样就要做更多的清洁工作,而且会使在房子里面的空气比较脏。

    房子的形状也允许设计更多的窗户。。。每个房间有一面很大的墙,可以放入两扇大窗户,让每个房间都能很好地看到外面的景色。

    学生:另外还能有良好的气流穿过整个房子。

    教授:是的,在温暖的天气里你可以打开所有的窗户。很好。房子的门,房子没有主入口或任何走廊。所以可能有几个入口门开在不同的地方,就像窗户的设计一样,提供了非常方便的和户外的连接。

    那么,六角房间可能有其他的优势吗?好,想想清洁。房间的哪一部分通常是最难清洁的?比如用扫帚扫。

    学生:哦!墙角!因为在正方形或者矩形的房间里,墙角是90度的角。这样就很难够到聚集在角落里的尘埃。但如果欧文设计的房间更像圆形而不是正方形,扫帚就能更容易够到所有的灰尘和污垢,对吗?

    教授:正是这样。现在我认为19世纪给欧文写传记的作家们并没有重视她设计的独创性。不过我认为如果她是在今天设计了这所房子,同样地传记作家会赞扬她设计的平面图里对功能性的强调,有效的房屋功能,还有她设计的创意和独特性。无论怎么说,在当时有三座房屋利用了欧文的六角形设计来建造。在1869年,当欧文41岁的时候,她成为第一位在美国获得专利的女性建筑设计师。依我说,这很有意义。

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    原文定位:

    So today we’ll be surveying a number of architects who made contributions to residential architecture in the nineteenth century. Now, it’s worth noting that people who designed homes at that time probably had to deal with a certain amount of discouragement, since there were other architects who thought it was more respectable to design the kind of buildings and maybe other structures that were less… less utilitarian in their function. In fact, an article from an 1876 issue of a journal called The American Architect and Building News stated that—and this is a quote— they stated that “the planning of houses isn’t architecture at all…”! So keep that journal article in mind as we look at the work of an architect named Harriet Morrison Irwin.

    选项分析:

    教授上来就说今天我们要讲几个建筑师。然后两句话简单介绍背景,定位内容最后一句引出主人公Harriet Morrison Irwin 后面都是在说她的六角形建筑

    A项说一个建筑师以及她设计的房子,是对原文最精确的概括,为正确答案。

    其他项不是主要讨论内容

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