Official 36 Set 5

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Suburb Housing Design

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  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Trends in housing designs in United States cities in the 1940s

  • B. The spread of the Levittown model across the United States

  • C. Ways that a building company met a demand for affordable housing

  • D. The importance of floor plans in meeting the needs of people

显示答案 正确答案: C

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an architecture class. The professor has been discussing housing designs.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Alright, in our last class we began our discussion of housing designs in the United States from the 1940s.You'll remember, for example, that we looked at some photos and discussed an apartment complex in Chicago from that decade.

    Now today let's talk about housing design in the suburbs.The demand for low-cost housing outside the cities increased in the late 1940s after World War II as a whole generation of young families needed affordable housing.And a firm, called Levitt & Sons, strove to meet this demand in some pretty innovative ways.They designed buildings based on the demands of the public, not so much their own artistic vision, and created a residential community in the state of New York that became known as Levittown.

    Levittown was the first suburb of its kind, and it started out with 2,000 homes.They were called Cape Cod houses-the Cape Cod model- and they were designed to look like the historical cottages in the New England states, in the northeastern United States.The original floor plan was very simple.The living room was in the front of the house, with windows looking out towards the street.You also had two bedrooms, um, a bathroom, and a kitchen.Everything was on one floor.The bathroom was right next to the kitchen, which was a way of keeping building costs down, since the two rooms could rely on just one plumbing system.

    Another feature of this Cape Cod house is that it could be expanded, as families grew and needed more space.You had the downstairs, but up the stairs, the house actually had unfinished attic space as well.Levitt & Sons promoted their houses saying this attic space could easily be converted into another bedroom, or even two.And then there was always the possibility of building additional rooms onto the house later.

    Each house was built the same way and with the same materials-all parts were standardized-so houses could be built economically.This was important because it meant that they were affordable for young families who wanted to live outside of the city.As a result, what you had was a whole community of houses that, except for the color of their roof and walls, were [hesitates] identical.So, eventually there's going to be a demand for some variety, right?

    After a couple of years, Levitt & Sons came out with a second design- [doubtful] well, they called it a second design, because it had a slightly different roof.Plus the exterior had a more modern look.

    This model was called a ranch house.Now, I'm guessing it wasn't too expensive or time consuming for Levitt to come up with this idea- but it was certainly efficient and hugely popular with families.The ranch is like the Cape Cod, except that the living room is in the back of the house instead of the front.And on this ranch model, there's one more important feature that's not present in the Cape Cod.It has a large window in the living room, called a picture window, which gives you kind of a framed view of the outside.

    The way the ranch is set up, when you look out this picture window, from the living room, you're looking out from the back of the house instead of from the front; parents could watch their children playing in the back yard- the grassy area behind the house-rather than a view of the street.So here was a way for families to disconnect the home-their house, their private lives-from the outside world, which was represented by the street that led to work, ah, and school.Which, really, seems like the thing they'd been looking for all along.But the floor plan was just like the Cape Cod, only, you know, turned 90 degrees.

    Levitt & Sons offered their ranch houses for sale at a low price.They could do that because they were using these simple, and therefore cost-saving building methods.Um, another way they kept construction prices down was to train workers who went from house to house doing a specific task.Sort of like an assembly line.For example, um, you might have a painter whose job was to paint the doors of each house, and then it'd be someone else's job to, ah, install the doors.This way, houses went up quickly, saving time and money.And the Levitts' ideas caught on: in the early 1950s their designs became a model for suburb construction throughout the country.

  • 旁白:请听一段建筑学讲座的片段。教授正在谈论房屋设计。

    教授:好的,在我们上一堂课上,我们开始讨论20世纪40年代的美国房屋设计。比如,你们还记得我们看了一些照片,讨论了那个时代芝加哥的公寓综合建筑。

    现在,今天我们要谈论郊区的房屋设计。二战结束后,随着整一代的年轻家庭需要担负得起的房屋,城外低价住房的需求在20世纪40年代末期增加了。有一家名为Levitt&Sons的公司努力通过颇为创新的方式来解决这个问题。他们设计的建筑基于大众的需求,而不是他们自己的艺术眼光,他们建立了一个纽约的居住社区,这个社区后来被称为是莱维敦。

    莱维敦是第一片这样的郊区,它初始的时候有2000户人家。他们被称为Cape Cod houses, Cape Cod model,他们被设计得像是新英格兰州的历史小屋,在美国东北部。一开始的建筑方案是很简单的。起居室在房子前面,有窗户可以看到外面的街道。还有两个卧室,嗯,一个浴室和一个厨房。所有的房间是在一层楼上的。浴室和厨房挨着,这是一种降低建筑成本的方法,因为这两个房间可以共用一套管道系统。

    Cape Cod房屋的另一个特征是,随着家庭的成长需要更多的空间,它也可以扩大空间。房屋不仅有底层的房间,但楼梯上房间还有未完成的阁楼部分。Levitt & Sons在推销他们的房子时说,这种阁楼可以很简单地被转化成一间卧室,甚至两间。并且以后也还可以继续建造新的房间。

    每一栋房子都是以相同的方式建造的,用的都是同样的材料。所有的部分都是标准化的,这样建造一所房子会变得更加经济省钱。这一点很重要,因为这意味着想住在郊区的年轻家庭可以负担得起。结果就是,整个社区的房子都是一模一样的,除了屋顶和墙壁的颜色。所以最终人们会需要房子变得多样性,是吗?

    在几年之后,Levitt & Sons研发了第二种设计,他们把它称为第二种设计是因为它和第一种设计的屋顶不一样。另外,房屋外表看起来更现代化。

    这一次的模型被称为是农场房屋。我猜这并没有花费Levitt很多金钱和时间来想出这个方案,但它确实是高效的,而且深受家庭的欢迎。这种农场房屋类似于Cape Cod,除了起居室在房屋的后面,而不是前面。在这个农场房屋模型里,还有一个和Cape Cod不同的重要特征。在起居室里有一扇大窗户,被称为观景窗,可以呈现给居住者关于外部的框架构图。

    建造农场房屋的方式是,当居住者从观景窗向外看,他们是从房屋背后往前看,而不是从前面往前看。父母可以看到孩子在后院玩耍,看到屋子后面的土地,而不仅仅是街景。所以这就使得居住者可以把自己的家庭、自己的房屋、自己的私人生活和外界世界隔绝开,而外部世界表现为通往工作场所和学校的街道这种设计符合了现代家庭苦苦追寻的住所样子。但是底层的设计还是保持了Cape Cod,你知道,只是改变了90度。

    Levitt & Sons把他们的农场房屋低价出售。他们可以做到低价出售,是因为他们使用了简单且低成本的建筑方法。他们另一种降低成本的办法是去训练专项工人,他们在房屋建筑里每个人只负责一块特定的工作。类似于生产线的装配工人。例如,会有一个油漆工,专门负责粉刷每一套房子,但是安装门的活儿就是另一个人专门负责。这样房子建的很快,既节省时间也节省金钱。Levitt的想法被延续了下去,在20世纪50年代早期,他们的设计就变成了全国范围内的郊区建筑的模板。

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    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位:

    Now today let’s talk about housing design in the suburbs. The demand for low-cost housing outside the cities increased in the late 1940s after World War II as a whole generation of young families needed affordable housing. And a firm, called Levitt & Sons, strove to meet this demand in some pretty innovative ways. They designed buildings based on the demands of the public, not so much their own artistic vision, and created a residential community in the state of New York that became known as Levittown.

    选项分析:原文开头引入讲座主题为一种需求较高的便宜的城外房子,这种房子是被Levitt & Sons 公司建的,选项C 符合题意,故选项C正确。

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