A. The kinds of objects that she selected for her paintings
B. The influence of her painting style on photography
C. The major abstract elements in her photographs
D. The techniques that contributed to her distinctive style
NARRATOR:Listen to part of a talk in an art history class.
MALE PROFESSOR:So today we are going to continue our discussion of 20th century photography in the United States.Last time we were talking about Alfred Stieglitz and we saw that one of his goals was to introduce Americans to European Art.Today, we are going to look at another photographer from the early 20th century—[sees hand raised]Yes, Jennifer?
FEMALE STUDENT:Before we get to that, I had a question about Stieglitz.
FEMALE STUDENT:Well—Stieglitz was married to Georgia O'Keeffe. Right?
MALE PROFESSOR:That's right. Stieglitz was married to her, promoted her work and actually, took some amazing portraits of her when they were married.
For anyone who's not familiar with this, we are talking about the American painter: Georgia O'Keeffe. [writes name on board]
FEMALE STUDENT:Ok. Well, I was wondering...Georgia O'Keeffe. You know I've heard her name so many times and I've seen some of her work, but she's not mentioned in any of our reading about photographers from that time.
MALE PROFESSOR:Oh. Well, O'Keeffe was really more of a painter.
FEMALE STUDENT:I thought she was a photographer, too.I mean, I just saw one of her photographs in a museum the other day. I think it was called "Red Leaves on White" or something like that.
MALE PROFESSOR:Oh—right … Yes, Large Dark Red Leaves on White is the complete title.It's a fairly well-known painting by O'Keeffe.
FEMALE STUDENT:Oh, oh, okay. What was I thinking? I guess I should have had a closer look.
MALE PROFESSOR:No, no. That's a really good observation.I mean, chronologically, that would be impossible.When she did that painting, color film hadn’t even been invented yet—neither had the right technology to blow pictures up that big, to show that much detail.But that painting, and some of her other paintings, do reveal the-the influence of photography … like, she would “crop” her images—[explaining the term] she, uh, she would make a “frame” around part of an image—say, just the very center—and then cut off certain parts—the parts outside that “frame”—to create the effect she wanted … the way a photographer does.
And those paintings are close-ups, like you might see today, of a person or a flower in a photograph.
Now, those techniques were certainly around and being used by photographers then, but just in photographs, which were smaller not as big as what O'Keeffe was painting.
Also, O'Keeffe studied under an artist named Arthur Wesley Dow,That's DOW, D-O-W, who advocated focusing on simple basic forms, like the lines of a flower and its petals and he wanted forms to be isolated from their original settings;He believed that, by doing that, an artist could reveal an object's, its essence.
He'd do things like...like...have students take a simple ordinary form, like a leaf, and explore various ways of fitting all of it into a square, maybe bending it around to make the whole thing fit into the frame. Pierre?
MALE STUDENT:It sounds like maybe O'Keeffe borrowed most of her ideas. The stuff we might think of as being hers, she got them from other people...she didn’t really have a style of her own.
MALE PROFESSOR:Well, virtually artists are influenced by other artists—by their predecessors … by their contemporaries—their teachers … artists build on what other artists have done, but [slowly]—if they’re talented—they take it in some unique direction—to develop their own distinctive style.
MALE PROFESSOR:O’Keeffe liked to create abstract interpretations of real objects—[providing example] in the painting Jennifer mentioned, Large Dark Red Leaves on White, in addition to exaggerating the size of the leaf, O’Keeffe juxtaposes it against a silver—or whitish—background, so that’s more of an abstract setting for it. And so on.
Now O’Keeffe wasn’t the first artist to create an abstract interpretation of a real object, but she used that approach to express her experience of the objects she was painting … so she presented a vision that people hadn’t seen before: It’s unique. It’s compelling. [clarifying]She didn't expect other people to experience the object the way she did.She knew they'd look at her painting and hang their own associations on it, which is true for artwork in general, I think.That's just the way the human brain works. But at least they'd be taking a careful look at something they'd never really paid much attention to.
学生：Stieglitz跟Georgia O’ Keeffe结婚了，对吗？
以防有人对这个不是很熟悉，我们正在讲的是美国的画家Georgia O’ Keeffe。
学生：哦，我想知道的是......Georgia O’ Keeffe，我听说过她的名字很多次，而且看过一些她的作品。但是我们关于那个时候的摄影师的阅读材料中一点儿都没提到她。
还有，O’ Keeffe在一位叫做Arthur Wesley Dow的画家手下学习过。那是DOW，他提倡关注简单的基本形式，比如一朵花的线条和它的花瓣，他想要的是与原本的环境分离的形式。他相信通过这么做，画家能够揭示一个实物的本质。
教授：O’ Keeffe喜欢创作出对真实物体的抽象诠释。在Jennifer提到的那幅画，白色中的大片深红树叶中，除了树叶的夸张大小，O’ Keeffe把它和一个银色或白色的背景并置在了一起，所以那是更抽象的环境等等。
O’ Keeffe不是第一个创作出对真实物体的抽象诠释的画家，但是她使用了那种方法来表达她对她正在画的物体的体验。于是她呈现出了人们之前没有看到过的景象。 它是很独特、很引人注目的。她并不指望其他人能像她一样体会这个物体。她知道他们会看着她的画作，然后在那之上加上他们自己的联想，我认为这整体上对艺术作品来说都是正确的。那就是人类的大脑运作的方式，但是至少他们会仔细看看他们之前从未真正注意过的东西。