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段落1

NARRATOR

Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.

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段落2

FEMALE PROFESSOR

Okay, so many animals benefit from living in groups ...

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it provides them with protection from predators and, uh, with social companionship...

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段落3

So it’s important for these animals to maintain their group’s unity.

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They need ways to either avoid conflicts, or, if they do occur, to resolve them peacefully.

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段落4

To help them achieve this, many animals use what are called display behaviors.

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These are behaviors that are mostly for show ...

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uh, symbolic behaviors that send a message to the other animals and help maintain their group’s unity.

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段落5

One way is through the use of threatening display behaviors.

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Threatening display behaviors are used to communicate a warning, but they aren’t meant to really harm other animals.

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Rather, they help animals avoid fights.

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段落6

Some monkeys—like baboons, for instance—frequently use threatening display behaviors.

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Like... well, let’s say two baboons find some fruit and they both want it.

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段落7

One baboon—maybe the first baboon to see the fruit—might stare at the other one ...

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and make threatening noises—grunts—to let the other baboon know it wants the fruit.

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段落8

Because the other baboon understands the meaning of the stares and grunts, it can give up the fruit without a fight.

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And this behavior benefits the group ... by preventing conflict.

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But sometimes physical fights do occur ...

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and animals need a way to reconcile afterwards, to make up ...

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to ensure that everyone in the group continues to get along.

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段落9

In these cases, an animal might use friendly display behavior to restore group unity.

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Uh... let’s return to the baboon example.

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段落10

Let’s say the two baboons do end up getting into a physical fight over the fruit.

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After the conflict, the two animals need a way to resolve things.

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段落11

So what they do is approach each other while making friendly noises, and may even hug each other...

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as if to say, “Everything’s okay now. I’m not angry with you anymore.”

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段落12

Through this display behavior—friendly noises or hugs—the baboons can make up and the group can go back to normal.

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