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1 .<-NARRATOR:->Listen to part of a lecture in a music history class.
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->So, uh, if you were a musician in the United States in the early twentieth century, where could you work?
1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->Same as now, I suppose... in an orchestra mainly...
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->OK, and where would the orchestra be playing?
1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->Uh, in a concert hall... or a dance hall?
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->That's right, and smaller groups of musicians were needed in theaters as accompaniment to visual entertainment, like cabarets and variety shows; but, the largest employer for musicians back then was the film industry- especially during the silent-film era.
1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->Really? You mean being a piano player or something? I thought movie theaters would have used recorded music...
1 .<-MALE PROFESSOR:->Well, no, not during the silent-film era.
2 .We're talking a period of maybe 30 years where working in movie theaters was the best job for musicians. It was very well paid.
3 .The rapid growth of the film industry meant movie theaters were popping up everywhere... so suddenly there was this huge demand for musicians.
4 .In fact, over 20,000 jobs for musicians were gone- disappeared-at the end of the silent-film era.
6 .OK, so, from the beginning, music was a big part of film.
7 .Even at the first...
1 .Excuse me, Professor?
2 .I think I read somewhere that they used music to drown out the sound of the film projectors...
1 .Ye-yeah, that's a good story, isn't it?
2 .Too bad it keeps getting printed as if it were the only reason music was used.
3 .Well, think about it.
4 .Even if that were the case, noisy projectors were separated from the main house pretty quickly- yet music continued to accompany film... so...
1 .As I was saying, even the very first public projection of a movie had piano accompaniment... so music was pretty much always there.
2 .What's strange to me, though, is that at first, film music didn't necessarily correspond to what was on the screen.
3 .You know, a fast number for a chase; deep bass notes for danger; something light and humorous for comedy... and that's instantly recognizable now, even expected.
4 .But, in the very early days of film, any music was played.
5 .A theater owner would just buy a pile of sheet music, and musicians would play it, no matter what it was.
6 .Pretty quickly though, thankfully, everybody realized the music should suit the film.
1 .So, eventually, filmmakers tried to get more control over the musical accompaniment of their films and specified what type of music to use, and how fast or slow to play it...
1 .Are you saying there was no music written specifically for a particular movie?
1 .Yeah, original scores weren't common then.
2 .Rarely, a filmmaker might send along an original score composed especially for a film... but usually a compilation of music that already existed would be used.
3 .Yeah, that was a good time for a lot of musicians.
4 .But that all changed with the introduction of sound-on-film technology.
1 .Actually, even before that- organs could mimic a number of instruments and also do some sound effects, so they were starting to replace live orchestras in some movie theaters.
2 .And it only takes one person to play an organ...
1 .OK, but even after that, someone still had to play the music for the sound recordings, the soundtracks...
1 .Yeah, but, think of all the movie theaters there were, most employing about six to eight musicians.
2 .Some even had full orchestras.
3 .But in the early 1930s, most theater owners installed new sound systems.
而在 20 世纪 30 年代初，多数的剧院拥有者们都安装了新的有声系统。
4 .So suddenly a lot of musicians were looking for work.
1 .Once recording technology took off, studio jobs, working exclusively for one film company, uh, studio jobs did become available.
2 .But the thing is, each major movie company pretty much had only one orchestra for all their productions... a set number of regular musicians... so, if you could get it, studio musician was a good job- if you were cut out for it.
3 .Musicians had to be able to read music very well, since the producers were very conscious of how much money they were spending- they didn't want to waste any time.
4 .So, a musician was expected to play complicated pieces of music pretty much without any preparation.
5 .If one couldn't do it, there were plenty of others waiting to try, so there was a lot of pressure to do well.