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第1段

1 .<-NARRATOR:->Listen to a conversation between a student and his biology professor.

旁白:听一段学生和生物学教授的对话。

第2段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->Well, you know, I’m writing my paper about whales and the paths they travel as they swim through the ocean, their migration patterns…

学生:你知道的,我正在写有关鲸鱼的论文,关于它们游过海洋的旅行轨迹,它们的洄游模式。

第3段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->Yes, I remember.

教授:对,我记得。

第4段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->And, well, I was thinking about it and I realized I don’t understand how they hold their breath underwater.

学生:我正在想这件事,我发现我不明白它们怎么在水下闭气的。

2 .It’s a little crazy for me to be writing a paper about migration patterns without actually knowing how they stay underwater for so long.

让我写一篇关于它们洄游模式的论文,但我实际上却不知道它们怎么在水底待这么长时间的,这有点疯狂。

第5段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->Did you do any research to find out how they do it?

教授:你有没有查过资料来弄明白它们怎么做到的?

第6段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->Yeah, I did. I searched on the Internet and there was a lot of information about whales, their habitats, the way they communicate — you know, their songs… but if there was anything about whales and how they hold their breath, I missed it. I’ve got a bunch of books — actually I’ve got so much information it’s a little overwhelming.

学生:我有。我在网上搜索过,网上有很多关于鲸鱼的信息,它们的栖息地,它们的交流方式,你知道的,它们的歌声。但假如真的有关于鲸鱼怎么憋气的信息,我一定是看漏了。我有一大摞书。事实上我得到了大量的信息,有点让人受不了。

第7段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->Well, I’m surprised there was nothing about it in any of those books.

教授:我很惊讶在这些书里竟然没有与此相关的信息。

第8段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->Well, to be honest, I’ve only skimmed them so far. I’m still working on finding sources.

学生:坦白说,我目前只是把它们粗看了一遍。我还在寻找信息。

第9段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->OK. I know I encouraged everyone in class to look at a substantial number of sources — but I don’t want you to get overwhelmed.

教授:好了,我明白我鼓励班上的每个人去看大量相关资料,但我不想你看太多以致无从下手。

2 .Looking at a number of sources gives you a good knowledge base, but students only have a limited amount of time to work on each paper —

通过看一定数量的资料,你会得到一个很好的知识储备,但学生在每份论文上都只有很有限的时间。

3 .I don’t expect you to read a dozen books on whales for this assignment. Focus on just a few.

我不希望你为了这次作业看一大堆关于鲸鱼的书,集中看几本就行了。

第10段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->OK, thanks.

学生:好的,谢谢!

第11段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->You know, since you’re already here, I can give you a quick summary of how whales hold their breath underwater; it’s just a matter of certain adaptations in their anatomy — specifically in their circulatory system.

教授:既然你已经来了,我能给你简单讲讲鲸鱼是怎么在水下闭气的,这不过是它们身体构造里的一些适应性进化,准确地说是它们的循环系统。

第12段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->So the blood flow is what makes the difference?

学生:所以血流是关键?

第13段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->Yes. And in a couple of ways. First, blood makes up a larger share of a whale’s weight than in other mammals.

教授:对,通过不同的方式。首先,与其他哺乳动物相比,血液在鲸鱼体重中占的比重更大。

第14段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->So they can store more oxygen because they have more blood?

学生:所以鲸鱼能储更多的氧,就因为它们的血量更多?

第15段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->Yes, but that’s only part of it. They also have a greater capacity than land animals to store oxygen in their blood.

教授:对,但这只是一部分原因。它们在血内储氧的能力比陆生动物也高出许多。

第16段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->[Quizzically]So, how does having more oxygen in their blood help them stay underwater longer?

学生:那么,血液中拥有更多的氧是怎么帮助它们在水下待得更久的?

第17段

1 .It’s the way the whale’s blood carries oxygen to the rest of its body.

这是靠鲸鱼的血液将氧气运输到身体其它部分的方式。

2 .Whales carefully conserve their oxygen when underwater in a couple of ways.

在水下时,鲸鱼通过不同的方法谨慎地储氧。

3 .When a whale dives, its metabolic rate drops, causing its heartbeat to slow down.

当鲸鱼潜入水中时,它的代谢速率会下降,心跳随之减缓。

4 .And the blood flow to its muscles and some of its nonvital organs, like its kidneys, is also cut off.

而且通向肌肉和一些非要害器官(如肾脏)的血流也停止了。

5 .A whale’s muscles and nonvital organs are able to function without oxygen for an extended period of time.

鲸鱼肌肉和非要害器官能在缺氧情况下持续运作一段时间。

第18段

1 .<-MALE STUDENT:->I see… well, now I can concentrate on my topic!

学生:我懂了,现在我我能专注于我的课题了。