A. Differences between classical ballet and modern dance
B. Ways in which modern dance changed during the twentieth century
C. Factors that limited Isadora Duncan’s opportunities to perform
D. A pioneer of a new type of performing art
NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a dance history class.
MALE PROFESSOR:As we’ve been studying, ballet, classical ballet, is based on formalized movements: specific positioning of the arms, of the feet, and the body.So, now let’s move on to modern dance, also known as “theatrical dance.”Modern dance evolved in the late nineteenth-early twentieth century, and in most cases, audiences were very receptive to this radical new type of performing art.
Um, what made modern dance so radical?
Well, for example, I think the best analogy to modern dance is modern art or modern music.Compared to their classical predecessors, these newer art forms are freer, more experimental, more improvisational.Modern dance seeks to show how deep emotions…and the music itself… how these intangible attributes can affect and inspire physical movement and how movement can convey emotions to the audience.As-as I said, in classical ballet, emotions are conveyed through a set of strictly formalized movements.
Now, a pioneer of modern dance was Isadora Duncan, who was born in 1878… Isadora Duncan did study ballet briefly as a child, but she quickly developed her own unique style, which she called “free dance.”
And, by age fourteen, she was teaching her free dance to young children and giving recitals.Her early dance technique was loosely based on the natural movements of children: running, skipping, acting out stories; also on motions from nature: uh, waves crashing onto shore, trees swaying in the wind.
Her expressive gestures were motivated from within rather than being dictated by strict technique.Duncan also wore her hair down; ballerinas typically wear their hair in a tight bun behind the head.And instead of the short stiff skirts and rigid toe shoes worn by ballerinas, Duncan wore loose, flowing tunics, and she danced barefoot.Now, that was something her audiences had never seen before!Duncan performed in Paris and other European cities, dancing to the music of classical composers but avoiding set movements and steps. No two performances were alike, and audiences, for the most part, adored her.In 1904, she opened a school of modern dance in Berlin. And the next year, she performed in Russia.[elongate]But…the Russian critics were not very kind.Some said Duncan’s art form was closer to pantomime than to dance.But, her style was a clear rebellion against ballet, and ballet is extremely important in Russia.A question, Julie?
FEMALE STUDENT:Yeah, what did Duncan have against ballet? I mean, she studied it as a child …
MALE PROFESSOR:As a youngster, she may have found it too restrictive, uh, not creative enough.I think that feeling is exemplified by something that happened …early in her career… in Russia.Duncan attended a ballet, and the lead dancer was the renowned Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova.
The following day, Pavlova invited Duncan to watch her practice.Duncan accepted but was appalled by what she saw.To her, the exercises that Pavlova and the other ballerinas were doing seemed painful, even harmful— standing on tiptoe for hours, moving their bodies in unnatural ways.
After seeing this, Duncan publicly denounced ballet as a form of acrobatics— a “complicated and excruciating mechanism,” she called it.This critique generated, I think, some undue rivalry between ballet and modern dance.And it would take a long time, many years in fact, for that rivalry to calm down.
现代舞的一位先驱是伊莎多拉邓肯，她出生在 1878 年，邓肯在小的时候学过芭蕾，但是很快她就发展出了自己的独特的风格，她称之为自由舞。
在她 14 岁时，她就将她的自由舞教给小孩，并举行了独舞表演。她早期的舞蹈技巧比较松散，只是建立在儿童自然的动作的基础上，跑动，跳跃，表演故事，还有大自然中的动作，海浪冲击海岸，树木在风中摆动。
原文定位：As we have been studying, ballet, the classical ballet, is based on formalized movements, specific positioning of the arms, feet and the body. So, now let's move on to modern dance, also known as theatrical dance. Modern dance evolved in the late nineteenth, early twentieth century, and in most cases, audiences were very receptive to this radical new type of performing art.
在文章开头部分先介绍相关的背景知识，提到芭蕾舞，然后再给出今天的主旨，提到这是new type，后面说到两者的difference 以及为什么会出现new type以及两者之间的部分conflict.
D选项即为对话核心名词new type 的原文对应，结合后面的内容给出A选项，这两个是对全文主旨最准确的概括