Official 22 Set 2

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
置顶

State Formation

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What does the professor mainly discuss?
  • A. Sudden population increases in early states

  • B. Possible reasons for the formation of early states

  • C. Consequences of agricultural land shortages in ancient Egypt

  • D. Common political problems of chiefdoms

显示答案 正确答案: B

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an anthropology class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:One of the big questions when we look at prehistory is: Why did the earliest states form?Well, to begin we'd better define exactly what we mean when we talk about states.

    Uh, the human groups that are the smallest and have the least social and political complexity we call "bands."The groups that are the largest and most socially and politically complex we call "states."So the level of complexity here refers to the organization of people into large, diverse groups and densely populated communities... and there are four levels in total: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states.

    But-but back to my original question. Why did early states form? Why not just continue to live in small groups? Why become more complex?

    One theory, called the "environmental approach", hypothesizes that the main force behind state formation was population growth.It assumes that centralized management was critical to dealing with issues caused by sudden population surges, like a strain on limited food supplies.

    At the least-complex end of the spectrum, the few families living in bands are able to meet their own basic needs.They usually hunt, gather, and forage whatever foods are available to them, instead of domesticating animals and planting crops.In order to efficiently take advantage of the wild foods available, bands are often nomadic, and move around following herds of animals.This strategy is feasible when you have a small population.

    But when you have a large population, well, the whole population can't just get up and move to follow a wild herd of animals.So you need sophisticated technologies to produce enough food for everyone.And there is an increased need to resolve social problems that arise as people begin to compete for resources.

    To manage intensified food production- to collect, store, and distribute food- you need centralized decision making... centralized decision makers.It's the same thing when it comes to maintaining social order.You need to create and efficiently enforce a formal legal code. It makes sense to have a centralized authority in charge of that, right? So a hierarchy forms.By definition, states have at least three social levels: usually an upper class of rulers, a middle class comprised of managers and merchants, and a lower class of craft producers and agricultural laborers.

    The environmental approach hypothesizes that states appear in certain environmental settings- settings which have a severe population problem or a shortage of agricultural land.But not everyone agrees with the theory. It definitely has some weaknesses.For example, states have developed in places like the Maya lowlands of Mesoamerica, and in Egypt's Nile River valley.Both places had vast areas of fertile farmland- no shortage of agricultural land.And what about population increase?Well, there were some early states that formed where there wasn't any sudden population increase.So it seems that these are valid criticisms of the environmental approach.

  • 旁白:听下面一段人类学的课堂讲解。

    教授:当我们审视史前历史的时候,最大的一个问题就是:为何最早的城邦会形成。呃,首先我们需要给“城邦”一个明确的定义。

    最小的,社会和政治复杂性最少的人类团体,我们称之为“群体”。最大的、社交及政治体系最复杂的团体,我们称之为“城邦”。这里的复杂水平指的是人口规模,团体多样,社区密集,并且复杂水平有四个层次:群体、部落、酋邦以及城邦。

    那么再回到我起初的问题上来,为什么早期的城邦会形成呢?为何不继续生活在小群体中呢?为什么要变得更复杂呢?

    一种叫做“环境法”的理论,假定人口增长是城邦的形成的主要推动力。这种理论认为集中管理对处理人口突然剧增引起的问题是至关重要的,比如有限的食物供应的压力。

    在复杂度最低的范围内,为数不多群体的家庭能够自给自足。他们通常一起打猎,寻找一切可以食用的食物,而不是驯养动物或种植庄稼。为了更有效的利用那些可食用的野生动植物,他们常常是游牧的,追随着一群群动物的迁徙而定居。这种生活方式在人口小的群体中是可行的。

    而当人口很多的时候,就不可能所有人都随时起身并跟着一群野生动物四处游荡。因此就需要复杂的技术来为每个人提供充足的食物。而且由于人们为资源相互竞争而引起的众多社会问题也都需要得到解决。

    为了管理愈演愈烈的食物生产—收集、储藏及分配食物,你就需要集中决策...一个中央的决策者。同样,维持社会秩序也如此。你需要创建并有效的实施一项正式的法典,那么有个中央权力机构来负责就说得通了,对吗?因此就形成了阶级。定义上看,城邦至少有三个社会等级,通常上层由统治者构成,中层由管理人员及商人构成,下层则由手工业生产者及农业劳动者构成。

    环境法假定城邦是在特定的环境设置中出现的,这样的环境可能存在严重的人口问题或者是农业用地短缺。但并不是每个人都同意这个观点,这个理论肯定是存在一些弊病的。比如,城邦在中美洲的玛雅低地及埃及的尼罗河畔等地发展起来。这两个地方有广阔肥沃的土地,不缺少农业用地。那么人口增加这一点呢?呃,有一些早期城邦是在没有人口突然加剧的情况下产生的。因此,看来这些都是对环境法的有力的批判。

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    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位

    Professor: One of the big questions when we look at prehistory is why did the earliest states form? Well, to begin we’d better define exactly what we mean when we talk about states. The human groups that are the smallest and have the least social and political complexity, we call bands. The groups that are the largest and most socially and politically complex, we call states. So, the level of complexity here refers to the organization of people into large, diverse groups, and densely populated communities...and there are four levels in total: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states.

    选项分析

    章前面一开始教授就说到why did the earliest states form, 然后分别详细讲解了four levels and hierarchy 最后讲解了environmental approach

    B选项即为文章核心名词why 的同义替换,是对全文主旨最准确的概括。

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