Official 13 Set 2

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  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
置顶

Pedestrian Malls

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  • Q6
What is the main topic of the lecture?
  • A. How the first pedestrian mall was developed

  • B. How pedestrian malls have affected business in America

  • C. Key considerations in creating a pedestrian mall

  • D. Ways that cities can better use pedestrian malls

显示答案 正确答案: C

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a city planning class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:In the last 15 years or so, many American cities have had difficulty in maintaining a successful retail environment.Business owners in the city centers or the downtown areas have experienced some financial losses, because of a steady movement of people out of the cities and into the suburbs.In general, downtown areas just don't have that many residential areas; not that many people live there.So what have city planners decided to do about it?Well, one way they've come up with the some ways to attract more people, to shop downtown was by creating pedestrian malls.

    Now, what is a pedestrian mall?It's a pretty simple concept really. It is essentially an outdoor shopping area designed just for people on foot.And—uh well, unlike many other shopping malls that are built in the suburbs nowadays—these pedestrian malls are typically located in the downtown area of the city and well they have features like [listing] wide sidewalks, comfortable outdoor seating, and uh maybe even fountains and you know art.There are variations on this model of course, but the common denominator is always the idea of creating a shopping space that will get people to shop in the city without needing their cars.So I am sure you can see how having an area that's off-limits to automobile traffic would be ideal for a heavily populated city where, well, the streets would otherwise be bustling with noisy, unpleasant traffic congestion.Now the concept which originated in Europe, was adopted by American city planners in the late 1950s.And since then, a number of Unites States' cities have created the pedestrian malls, and many of them have been highly successful.So what have city planners learned about making these malls succeed?

    Well, there are two critical factors to consider when creating a pedestrian mall: location and design.Both of which are equally important.Now let's start with location.In choosing a specific location for pedestrian mall, there are in fact two considerations: proximity to potential customers, uh that’s we would call a “customer base,” and accessibility to public transportation, which we’ll get to in just a moment.Now, for a customer base, the most obvious example would be a large office building since the employees could theoretically go shopping after work or during their lunch hour, right?Another really good example is convention center, which typically has a hotel and large meeting spaces to draw visitors to the city for major business conferences and events.But ideally, the pedestrian malls would be used by local residents, not just people working in the city or visiting the area.So that's where access to the public transportation comes in,Either um either the designers plan to locate the mall near a central transportation hub—like a bus terminal, a major train, or subway station or they work with city officials to create sufficient parking areas, not too far from the mall. Which make sense, because if people can’t drive into the mall area ,well, then they need to have easy access to it.

    OK, so that's location, but what about design?Well, design doesn't necessarily include things like sculptures, or decorative walkways, or even eye catching window displays—you know—art.Although I'd be the first to admit those things are aesthetically appealing, however, visually pleasing sights, well they are not a part of pedestrian mall design that matter the most.The key consideration is a compact and convenient layout.One which allows pedestrians to walk from one end of the mall to the other in just a few minutes, so they can get to the major stores, restaurants and other central places without having to take more than one or two turns.Now, this takes careful and creative planning.

    But now what if one ingredient to this planning recipe is missing?There could quite possibly be long-lasting effects.And I think a good example is the pedestrian mall in the Louisville Kentucky for instance.Now when the Louisville mall was built,oh, it had lots of visual appeal. It was attractively designed, right in the small part of downtown and it pretty much possessed all of the other design elements for success.But... now here is where my point about location comes into play.There wasn't a convention center around to...to help draw in visitors and, well, the only nearby hotel eventually closed down for that same reason.Well, you can imagine how this must have affected local and pedestrian mall business owners.sort of what we call a chain reaction.It wasn't until a convention center and a parking garage were built about decade later that mall started to be successful.

  • 旁白:请听一段城市规划课上的演讲。

    教授:在过去的15年里,很多美国城市在维持一个成功的零售环境方面遇到了困难。一些城市中心的商人蒙受了经济损失,因为人们不断地从城市流动到郊区。一般来说,市中心的住宅区不多,没有多少人居住在此。那么城市规划者打算对此做些什么呢?他们想出了吸引更多人的方法,通过建造步行街在市中心购物。

    那么,什么是步行街(商城)呢?其实这是个简单的概念,它基本上就是一个步行的人涉及的户外购物区域。而且…不同于现在郊区建造的购物商场,这些步行街(商城)典型地坐落于城中心地区,而且有一些标志性的特点,比如宽敞的人行道,舒服的户外座椅,甚至喷泉… 你知道,还有(作为装饰用的)艺术品。当然,这个模型有不同的变化。但最共同的宗旨还是让人们可以在城里面步行着购物,而不需要他们的车。所以我相信你们可以看到一个禁止汽车交通的区域对于一个人口密集的城市有多么重要,否则,街道将被嘈杂的汽车堵塞。这个概念发源于欧洲,19 世纪50 年代被美国人吸收采用。从那以后,美国的许多城市都建造了步行街,其中许多都取得了巨大的成功。为了取得这种成功,城市规划者在建造步行街时需要考虑哪些因素?

    主要因素有两个,地理位置和设计。二者同等重要。首先讲讲地理位置。为步行街选择一个特定的地理位置,需要考虑两个因素:接近潜在客户,也就是我们说的客户基础,以及对于公共交通的可及性,这个我们待会儿再说。对于客户群体来说,最明显的例子是(靠近)一个大型写字楼,因为理论上员工可以下班后去逛街,或者午休的时候去逛街,对吗?另一个很好的例子是会议中心,它通常有酒店,和宽敞的会议场地,来吸引人们到这座城市开展主要的商业会议和活动。但理想状况是,步行街针对的是当地的居民,而不仅仅是在该城市工作的人或在某区域游玩的游客。所以,这就是公共交通工具的用武之地。设计者们要么计划将购物中心建在中心交通枢纽处,像巴士终点站,火车或地铁站,要么和城市官员合作建设足够的离购物中心不远的停车区域,这是有道理的,因为如果人们不能开车进入购物中心,那么他们就需要便捷的通道进入购物中心。

    好了,这就是选址的问题,那么设计呢?嗯,设计并不一定包括像雕塑或装饰了的人行道或甚至是引人注目的橱窗陈列,你们知道的,艺术。尽管我一开始承认这些东西在审美上看起来很吸引人,但是,视觉上令人愉悦的景象并不是步行街设计最重要的一部分。要考虑的关键的地方是其布局,即紧凑又便利。步行街的设计要让行人能在几分钟内从一端走到另一端,这样他们就可以不需要在多转几个圈的情况下能够顺利到达主要商店,餐馆,和其他中心地带。这样设计布局必须谨慎而又富有创意。

    然而,如果设计中缺少某一元素会怎样呢?这很可能会造成长久的影响。而我想,肯塔基州路易斯维尔的步行街就是一个很好的例子。当该易斯维尔购物中心建起来的时候,视觉效果具有很大的吸引力,设计上颇引人注目,坐落在市区的一小块地上,它几乎拥有所有其他的成功设计元素。但是,这就是我讲的关于其地理位置发挥作用的地方。该步行街附近没有会议中心,不能汇集各地的游客,附近唯一的酒店也是因为同一原因而倒闭。嗯,你可以想象到这是如何影响到当地人和步行街商户的。有点像我们说的连锁反应。直到几十年后,这里建起了一座会议中心和一座停车场,该步行街才开始成功营业。

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    题型分类:主旨题

    原文定位:

    In the last 15 years or so, many American cities have had difficulty in maintaining a successful retail environment.Business owners in the city centers or the downtown areas have experienced some financial losses, because of a steady movement of the people out of the cities and into the suburbs.In general, downtown areas just don't have that many residential areas; not that many people live there.So what have city planners decided to do about it?Well, one way they've come up with the some ways to attract more people, to shop downtown was by creating pedestrian malls.

    选项分析:
    文章开头通过一个问句引出主题,全文内容都是在回答这个问题,讲作为一个成功的pedestrian street 的关键因素,因此选项C正确。

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