NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a city planning class.
FEMALE PROFESSOR:In the last 15 years or so, many American cities have had difficulty in maintaining a successful retail environment.Business owners in the city centers or the downtown areas have experienced some financial losses, because of a steady movement of people out of the cities and into the suburbs.In general, downtown areas just don't have that many residential areas; not that many people live there.So what have city planners decided to do about it?Well, one way they've come up with the some ways to attract more people, to shop downtown was by creating pedestrian malls.
Now, what is a pedestrian mall?It's a pretty simple concept really. It is essentially an outdoor shopping area designed just for people on foot.And—uh well, unlike many other shopping malls that are built in the suburbs nowadays—these pedestrian malls are typically located in the downtown area of the city and well they have features like [listing] wide sidewalks, comfortable outdoor seating, and uh maybe even fountains and you know art.There are variations on this model of course, but the common denominator is always the idea of creating a shopping space that will get people to shop in the city without needing their cars.So I am sure you can see how having an area that's off-limits to automobile traffic would be ideal for a heavily populated city where, well, the streets would otherwise be bustling with noisy, unpleasant traffic congestion.Now the concept which originated in Europe, was adopted by American city planners in the late 1950s.And since then, a number of Unites States' cities have created the pedestrian malls, and many of them have been highly successful.So what have city planners learned about making these malls succeed?
Well, there are two critical factors to consider when creating a pedestrian mall: location and design.Both of which are equally important.Now let's start with location.In choosing a specific location for pedestrian mall, there are in fact two considerations: proximity to potential customers, uh that’s we would call a “customer base,” and accessibility to public transportation, which we’ll get to in just a moment.Now, for a customer base, the most obvious example would be a large office building since the employees could theoretically go shopping after work or during their lunch hour, right?Another really good example is convention center, which typically has a hotel and large meeting spaces to draw visitors to the city for major business conferences and events.But ideally, the pedestrian malls would be used by local residents, not just people working in the city or visiting the area.So that's where access to the public transportation comes in,Either um either the designers plan to locate the mall near a central transportation hub—like a bus terminal, a major train, or subway station or they work with city officials to create sufficient parking areas, not too far from the mall. Which make sense, because if people can’t drive into the mall area ,well, then they need to have easy access to it.
OK, so that's location, but what about design?Well, design doesn't necessarily include things like sculptures, or decorative walkways, or even eye catching window displays—you know—art.Although I'd be the first to admit those things are aesthetically appealing, however, visually pleasing sights, well they are not a part of pedestrian mall design that matter the most.The key consideration is a compact and convenient layout.One which allows pedestrians to walk from one end of the mall to the other in just a few minutes, so they can get to the major stores, restaurants and other central places without having to take more than one or two turns.Now, this takes careful and creative planning.
But now what if one ingredient to this planning recipe is missing?There could quite possibly be long-lasting effects.And I think a good example is the pedestrian mall in the Louisville Kentucky for instance.Now when the Louisville mall was built,oh, it had lots of visual appeal. It was attractively designed, right in the small part of downtown and it pretty much possessed all of the other design elements for success.But... now here is where my point about location comes into play.There wasn't a convention center around to...to help draw in visitors and, well, the only nearby hotel eventually closed down for that same reason.Well, you can imagine how this must have affected local and pedestrian mall business owners.sort of what we call a chain reaction.It wasn't until a convention center and a parking garage were built about decade later that mall started to be successful.
那么，什么是步行街（商城）呢？其实这是个简单的概念，它基本上就是一个步行的人涉及的户外购物区域。而且…不同于现在郊区建造的购物商场，这些步行街（商城）典型地坐落于城中心地区，而且有一些标志性的特点，比如宽敞的人行道，舒服的户外座椅，甚至喷泉… 你知道，还有（作为装饰用的）艺术品。当然，这个模型有不同的变化。但最共同的宗旨还是让人们可以在城里面步行着购物，而不需要他们的车。所以我相信你们可以看到一个禁止汽车交通的区域对于一个人口密集的城市有多么重要，否则，街道将被嘈杂的汽车堵塞。这个概念发源于欧洲，19 世纪50 年代被美国人吸收采用。从那以后，美国的许多城市都建造了步行街，其中许多都取得了巨大的成功。为了取得这种成功，城市规划者在建造步行街时需要考虑哪些因素？
In the last 15 years or so, many American cities have had difficulty in maintaining a successful retail environment.Business owners in the city centers or the downtown areas have experienced some financial losses, because of a steady movement of the people out of the cities and into the suburbs.In general, downtown areas just don't have that many residential areas; not that many people live there.So what have city planners decided to do about it?Well, one way they've come up with the some ways to attract more people, to shop downtown was by creating pedestrian malls.选项分析：