Official 25 Set 3

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Béla Bartók

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What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. The influence of the Romantic style of music on eastern European composers

  • B. The relationship between nationalism and popular music in the early 1900s

  • C. The popularity of folk music in Austria-Hungary during the early 1900s

  • D. The influence of folk music on the compositions of one Hungarian composer

显示答案 正确答案: D

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a music history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:So I just finished reviewing your papers on the influence of nationalism on a composer's music – and initially I was surprised none of you chose to write about Béla Bartók– that is until I remembered we haven't had a chance to discuss him in class yet.He was a wonderful and groundbreaking composer.

    Béla Bartók was a Hungarian whose life stretched from the late nineteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century, but he was not a fan of the Romantic style of music that was popular in his homeland during his youth.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Wait, Hungary wasn't a country in 1900, was it?

    MALE PROFESSOR:You're right, I should've been clearer.Bartók was born in Austria-Hungary, a nation that broke apart when he was about forty years old— actually, the town where he was born is presently part of Romania.The political history of that region is complex; suffice it to say Bartók is generally known as a Hungarian composer.

    So ... during Bartok's youth, the music played in the concert halls of Austria–Hungary was dominated by romantic pieces by mostly German composers.We discussed the romantic style last week.These pieces were long and lyrical—they were meant to have a sort of ... grandeur about them.And in the early 1900s, composers who worked in the romantic style were the most popular in Austria–Hungary.But Bartok, he was part of a musical community that was trying to change this, and it led him to ... well, the first thing it did was lead him to travel.He looked to the countryside for the music of the farmers and the people who lived in small towns.And their music ... well, you could say he discovered the music that was popular in those areas.

    MALE STUDENT:What do you mean?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well ... all the music we've been talking about the past few weeks, it really was all in the cities. That's where the composers and the orchestras were.Out in remote areas of the countryside, in rural locations, music was more traditional— the same songs that were enjoyed by previous generations.

    Bartok went out, he traveled through a significant portion of eastern Europe actually, he roamed the countryside and listened to the music heard in small towns and at all sorts of celebrations.He attended weddings, dances, and religious ceremonies where he heard a very different sort of music from the romantic stuff being played in the concert halls in the cities.The music he heard is what we would consider "folk music."

    MALE STUDENT:And then he had those same songs played in the concert halls?

    MALE PROFESSOR:No. At first, he went around to document the folk music.He really wanted to make sure the folk songs were written down before they disappeared.In fact, Bartok didn't start out the trip thinking of himself as a composer.He was an ethnomusicologist— he studied the traditional music of the region.But it turns out that what would later have a notable influence on European music on the whole was the way Bartok used elements he heard in folk songs in his own compositions.He adopted a number of elements from what he heard, like, unusual rhythms ... and ... he liked to use the glissando as his hallmark, which he probably got from listening to Croatian folk music.A glissando is ... well, I've got a recording of Bartok here ... let's wait until the music is fresh in our minds.

    Suzy, do you have something you want to ask first?

    FEMALE STUDENT:Yeah, before you mentioned nationalism and—

    MALE PROFESSOR:Ah, right, yes. When Bartok had his new pieces performed, their folk music roots made them instantly popular.It happened to be a time of strong nationalism in Austria–Hungary, so his compositions came at just the right time— he became very successful there.Particularly, when Bartok's ballet The Wooden Prince opened, there was great excitement for music that included musical elements from local folk songs, music that reflected the region's musical traditions.However, as popular as Bartok was in his homeland, he did not get much international recognition during his lifetime.

  • 旁白:听一段音乐史课程。

    教授:我刚刚才看完了你们的论文关于民族主义对作曲家的音乐的影响。一开始,我很惊讶,你们之中竟然没有人写贝拉巴托克。我才想起来,我们还没在课上讨论过他呢。他是一位杰出的作曲家,独具开拓性。

    贝拉·巴托克是一个匈牙利人,他在19世纪晚期出生,于20世纪中期逝世。但他并不喜欢浪漫主义的音乐,虽然在他年轻时,浪漫音乐在他的故乡很流行。

    学生:等一下,在1900年,匈牙利还不是一个国家呢,对吧?

    教授:你说得对,我应该说清楚些的。巴托克是在奥匈帝国出生的,这个国家在他四十岁时分裂了。事实上,他出生的小镇在现在的罗马尼亚境内。那个地区的政治历史很复杂,简单地说,人们普遍认为巴托克是一位匈牙利作曲家。

    所以,在巴托克的青年时期,在奥匈帝国音乐厅里奏响的音乐,绝大多数都是由德国作曲家写的浪漫音乐。我们上周讨论过这种浪漫主义风格了。这些音乐篇幅很长,感情充沛。这些音乐就是有一种华丽美。在1900年早期,浪漫主义风格作曲家在奥匈帝国是最流行的。但巴托克,他是那些试图改变这一切的其中一位音乐人。这让他...,嗯,第一件事就是让他去旅行了。他到乡村寻找属于农民和小城镇人的音乐。他们的音乐,嗯,你可以这么说,他发现了在这些地区流行的音乐。

    学生:你的意思是?

    学生:我们这几周讨论的音乐都是城市里的音乐。那是作曲家和管弦乐队所在的地方。在遥远偏僻的乡村,在农村地区,音乐更加传统,好几辈人听的都是同样的歌曲。

    巴托克走出大门,实际上他游遍了东欧好些重要地区。他在乡村漫步,听着小城镇和各式庆典里的音乐。他参加婚礼,舞会和宗教典礼,在那些地方,他听到的音乐与在城市里演奏的浪漫音乐十分不同。他听到的音乐是我们所认为的民谣。

    学生:然后他在音乐厅里演奏这些歌曲了么?

    教授:不是。一开始,他四处走动把民谣记录记录下来了。他真的很想确保在这些民谣消失前都被记录下来。事实上,巴托克在旅途开始时并没有把自己当做作曲家。他是个人种音乐学家,他研究地区传统音乐。但事实证明,巴托克在自己作的曲目中运用了他所听到的民谣歌曲中的元素,对欧洲音乐产生了显著的影响。他采用了很多他听到的音乐中的元素,就像不同寻常的节奏等等...他还喜欢把滑音当做自己的特点,你们听克罗地亚民谣也能听出来。滑音就是……我这儿有段巴托克音乐的录音。让我们静静等待音乐在我们脑海中浮现出来。

    苏茜,你有什么想先问的吗?

    学生:对,之前你提到爱国主义……

    教授:啊,对。当巴托克不断把新曲目搬上舞台,这些音乐就因其民谣根源一瞬而红。恰好那时候在奥匈帝国是爱国情绪高涨的时期,所以他的曲目赶上了一个好时机,音乐非常成功。尤其当巴托克的芭蕾舞剧《木刻王子》开演,人们都很兴奋,因为音乐中包含了来自当地民谣的元素,它反映了该地区的音乐传统。但是,尽管巴托克在他的家乡很受欢迎,在他的一生中,他并没有获得国际广泛认可。

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    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位Professor: So I just finished reviewing your papers on the influence of nationalism on the composers' music. And initially I was surprised none of you chose to write about Béla Bartók, that is until I remembered we haven't had a chance to discuss him in class yet. He was a wonderful and ground-breaking composer.

    选项分析 在文章开头部分先介绍相关的背景知识,提到一个人名, 可以确定是与个人有关的。首先介绍了Bartók 的出生地,随后介绍了音乐与remote areas的关系。最后说到虽然受欢迎但是没有获得奖项。

     D选项中选项应该选对人的及其作品方面的描述是对全文主旨最准确的概括

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