Official 20 Set 5

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Folk Tales

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What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. The role played by folktales in contemporary Norwegian society

  • B. A description of the major types of Norwegian folktales

  • C. A comparison of Norwegian folktales and Norwegian folk legends

  • D. An illustration of the differences between oral literature and written literature

显示答案 正确答案: B

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Alright, so now we've talked about folk legends, and seen that they're, that one of their key features is, there's usually some real history behind them. They're often about real people.So you can identify with the characters. And that's what engages us in them.The particular stories might not be true, and some of the characters or events might be made up, but there's still a sense that the story could have been true, since it's about a real person.

    That's a distinct contrast from the other main branch of popular storytelling, which is folktales.

    Folktales are imaginative stories that um, like folk legends, they've been passed down orally, from storyteller to storyteller, for, since ancient times.But with folktales, you don't ever really get the sense that the story might have been true.They're purely imaginative, and so quite revealing- I think, anyway- about the culture, and uh, the connection between folktales and the culture, which we'll talk about.But first let's go over the various types of folktale, and focus specifically on Norwegian folktales since they illustrate the variety pretty well.

    There are, in general, three main types of Norwegian folktales.One is animal stories, where animals are the main characters.They can be wild animals or uh, domestic, and a lot of times they can talk and behave like humans, but at the same time they retain their animal characteristics too.They tend to involve animals like bears, wolves, and foxes.

    The point of these stories, their, their internal objective, so to speak,is usually to explain some feature of the animal, how it arose.So there's one about a fox who fools a bear into going ice fishing with his tail.When the bear puts his tail into the water through a hole in the ice, to try to catch a fish, the ice freezes around it, and he ends up pulling his tail off!So that's why bears to this day have such short tails.

    The second category of Norwegian folktale is the supernatural.Uh, stories about, giants and dragons and trolls, and humans with supernatural powers or gifts. Like invisibility cloaks.Or where people are turned into animals and back again into a person.Those are called transformation stories.There's a well-known Norwegian supernatural folktale, a transformation story called "East of the Sun and West of the Moon". Which we'll read.It involves a prince who's a white bear by night and a human by day.And he lives in a castle that's east of the Sun and west of the Moon- which the heroine of the story has to try to find.Besides being a good example of a transformation story, this one also has a lot of the common things that tend to show up in folktales.You'll find the standard opening "Once upon a time...,".And it has stock characters like a prince and a poor but beautiful peasant girl, she's the heroine I mentioned.And um... it has a very conventional form, so no more than two characters are involved in any one scene.And it has a happy ending.

    And it's, the story is presented as though, well, even though a lot of the actions that occur are pretty fantastic,so you'd never think of it as realistic, the characters still act like, they resemble real people.They're not real, or even based on historical figures-but you might have a supernatural story involving a king, and he'd act like you'd expect a Norwegian king to act.

    Ok, the third main kind of folktale is the comical story.We'll say more later about these but for now, just be aware of the category and that they can contain supernatural aspects,but they're usually more playful and amusing overall than supernatural stories.

    Now, as I said, traditionally folktales were just passed down orally.Each generation of storytellers had their own style of telling a story.But um... in Norway, before the nineteenth century, folktales were just for kids, they weren't seen as worthy of analysis or academic attention.But this changed when the Romantic movement spread throughout Europe in the mid-nineteenth century.The romantics looked at folktales as sort of a reflection of the soul of the people, so there was something distinctly Norwegian in folktales from Norway.And there was renewed pride in the literature and art forms of individual countries.As a result, the first collection of Norwegian folktales was published in 1852.And there've been many new editions published since then.For the people of Norway, these stories are now an important part of what it means to be Norwegian.

  • 旁白:听下面一段文学课程。

    教授:好了,我们谈论了民间传奇,以及他们的主要特点之一是他们背后通常有一些真实的历史。他们通常是关于真人的。所以你可以效仿这些人物角色,这就是吸引我们的原因。某些故事可能不是真的,某些人物角色或经历可能是编造的,但它依然带给我们真实感,因为它毕竟是关于真实存在的人物的。

    这是它与其他民间流传的叙事—比如传说—迥异的地方。

    民间传说是幻想的故事,与传奇相似的是,它也是口耳相传的,它从一代讲说它的人口中传递给另外一代,自古至今。但是,在民间传说身上,体现不出来任何真实性。它们是纯粹的幻想,这很明显。总之,关于文化,我们将要讨论到它与民间传奇之间的关系。但在此之前,让我们回顾一下民间传说的类型,就以挪威传说为例吧,因为它们非常能够体现出传说的多样性。

    一般而言,挪威民间传说可以分为三种类型。第一种是动物的故事,在这种类型的民间传说中,动物是主角。这些动物或是野生的,或是家养的,而且它们往往有人一样的行为,还会说话,但同时,它们又保持了动物自身的特点。这个类型的故事涉及到的动物有熊、狼和狐狸。

    这些故事的重点,它们的本质目的,通常是解释动物它们身上的一些特征是怎么来的。比如,一头狐狸哄骗一头熊,让这头熊用尾巴去钓鱼。当熊把尾巴放到了湖面上的冰洞里面去钓鱼的时候,水在熊尾巴周围结冰了,熊使劲儿往外拔它的尾巴,结果把尾巴拔掉了。从此以后,熊的尾巴就是这么短了。

    第二个类型的民间传说是超自然的神灵故事。与巨人、恶龙和巨魔有关,传说中的人往往都会使用魔法,且佩戴了有超能力的道具,比如隐形披风。有的故事里面的人还可以把人变成动物,或把动物变成人。这些故事叫做变形故事。有一个著名的挪威民间变形故事,叫做《阳之东,月之西》,后面我们也会读到。故事中,有一位王子,他白天是人的形状,到夜晚就变成了一头白色的熊。他住在一座城堡里。这座城堡的位置在太阳的东边,月亮的西边,故事中的女主人公历经千辛万苦,要找到这个地方。这个故事不仅是一个很好的变形故事的例子,而且还体现出很多其他民间传说的特征。我们能在这其中读到一个标准化的开头“很久很久以前...”。它有一些经常出现的人物,譬如高贵的王子,贫穷的但美丽的农家女孩,这位美丽的女孩是故事的主人公。并且,它的故事形式也很传统,每一幕中涉及到的人物不超过两位。它有一个大团圆的结局。

    还有,嗯,这个故事中有特别多的奇幻的动作描写,所以我们肯定不会认为它是真的。故事里面的角色,行为方式和真人没有区别。但这些人既不是真实的,也不是历史上有过的。但假如某一个故事中出现了一位国王的话,你会不自觉地把他和挪威的国王联系起来。

    好的。第三个类型的民间传说,叫做滑稽故事。我们后面会讲得更多,现在我们只需要了解这个类型,并且它也会涉及到超自然的事物,但总的来说,与纯粹的超自然故事相比,这个类型的故事更加欢乐,更具有娱乐性。

    一般而言,民间传说是一代一代口儿相传的。每一代的故事讲说者都会有自己的讲说风格。但是,在挪威,在19世纪以前,民间传说只是说给小孩子听的。它们很少被放到严肃的学术著作中进行分析。但是之后,随着19世纪中期欧洲浪漫主义运动的全面展开,这种局面发生了变化。浪漫主义者把民间传说看成是人的灵魂的反应。所以,挪威人的民间故事鲜明地体现出挪威人的特色。每一个国家,都有自己自豪的文学或艺术形式。总之,在1852年,第一本挪威故事集出版了。从此以后,新的版本一直没有中断。对于挪威人来说,这些故事体现出了他们的民族本色。

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    Thats a distinct contrast from the other main branch of popular storytelling, which is folktales.

    There are, in general, three main types of Norwegian folktales.

    选项分析:从全文来看,教授主要分点讲解了 Norwegian folktales 的三种主要类型。

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