Official 29 Set 5

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Clovis People & Caches

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  • Q6
What is the main purpose of the lecture?
  • A. To explain the method used to date Clovis caches

  • B. To compare two different types of Clovis caches

  • C. To discuss possible interpretations of Clovis caches

  • D. To show how caches indicate the route traveled by the Clovis people

显示答案 正确答案: C

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an archaeology class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:We'll be looking at the original settlement of the Americas next and I'll spend the next few classes talking about the Clovis people.And the two big questions archaeologists have about them... the two big questions are: When did the Clovis people arrive in the Americas? And, of course, were they the first people in the Western Hemisphere?And we'll get to that, but for today let's try to get an idea about- well... a question that's not addressed as much as the others and that's what was their culture like? And how do we figure that out?

    Now again, there is a great debate about when the Clovis people first arrived in the Americas, and I'm not like a lot of archaeologists who want to push the number way back.So let's use a round number... and probably a safe number and say 11,000 years ago.The Clovis people were likely settling North America 11,000 years ago and leave it at that for now.

    Now, most of what we know about the Clovis people comes from one of their tools: the Clovis point.When we talk about a point we're referring to a piece of stone that's worked to a sharp point, in this case probably to be attached to a spear.The Clovis point may be the most analyzed artifact in archaeology.And the point used by Clovis people differs slightly from later points in the way that the base of the stone is thinned... uh, it's-it's thinner toward the base, the part that's attached to the spear.So when one is found, it's usually not confused with points made by later groups.

    Clovis points have been discovered at both hunting grounds and campsites... which you might expect.But another fascinating place we find them is in Clovis caches.

    A cache is just something stored or hidden away... it's also the term for the place where it's hidden.The Clovis caches are collections of tools- stone points and other tools made of stone or bone- often at various stages of manufacture... some were left unfinished.The traditional explanation is that these were emergency supplies, uh, meant to be used at a later time.Since the Clovis people were highly mobile, it's plausible that they would set up spots along established travel routes where they'd keep a variety of items, either so they wouldn't have to carry everything with them or so they could save time once they arrived at a site, by not having to make stuff from scratch.

    But there's another theory about the caches, based on the quality of some of the points we've found.Y'see, the points in some caches differ from other points... from points at Clovis campsites, for example.For one thing, these cache points are quite large, up to twice as large as regular points.So big that you couldn't attach one to a spear, say, and expect to throw the spear accurately over any distance.So what were they for?

    Well, it was originally thought that they were unfinished... that someone was working away at a point, then had to stop, and put it aside in one of these caches, to work on later.The problem is, it's unlikely that a point would've started out as large as the points in these caches. That would be a lot of stone to chip away.A toolmaker start with a smaller piece.And, actually, far from being unfinished, a lot of these points really show, uh, excellent craftsmanship and attention to detail.And not just with respect to the skill, but also with respect to the raw material- it seems the cached points are made from the very best pieces of stone.

    So we have to ask: could these points have served another purpose? Maybe they weren't just tools. Look at it this way.When the Clovis people first arrived in the Americas, they had a lot to learn about their new environment.Over time, they would have begun to recognize some places as special... important for some reason.Maybe there was always water available there, or the hunting was especially good.So-maybe the cache was a way to mark the place as significant.

  • 旁白:听一段考古学课程。

    教授:我们接下来会讲美洲上的原始定居,我会花几节课的时间讲讲克洛维斯人。和考古学家们对此提出了两个重要问题。这两个问题是,克洛维斯人是什么时候到达美洲的?当然了,还有一个问题是,他们是西半球的第一批人吗?我们会讲到那儿的。但今天,我们来看一个不那么经常提及的问题,克洛维斯人的文化是怎样的?我们怎么才能知道呢?

    重申一遍,关于克洛维斯人最初到达美洲是在什么时候,人们争论不休。我可不像很多想把数字往前推的考古学家,我们就用个整数吧,且这个数字比较保险,11000年前。克洛维斯人可能在11000年前定居北美洲。先放一放。

    我们对克洛维斯人的大部分认知都来自于他们的一种工具——克洛维斯石矛头。我们说矛头的时候,我们所指的都是一块被加工成尖头的石块,在这种情况下,很可能是要接在矛上的。克洛维斯石矛头可能是考古学中被分析得最多的器物了。克洛维斯人的矛头和后期的矛头有些不同,克洛维斯矛头的石基座是薄的。即越接近基座,(接在矛上的一端)越薄。所以一旦人们发现了克洛维斯矛头,通常不会把它和后期别的矛头混起来。

    在捕猎点和扎营地点都发现了克洛维斯矛头,你们也能猜到。但在另一个有趣的地点也发现了矛头——克洛维斯人的贮藏点。

    贮藏物即被储存或藏起来的东西,这个词也可指藏物地点。克洛维斯贮藏物是指一系列工具,包括石矛头和其它用石头或骨头做的,完成程度各有不同,有些还未完工。传统的解释是,这些都是紧急物资,是为以后准备的。由于克洛维斯人经常迁移,有可能他们会在既定的旅行路线上设一些落脚点并存放一些东西。这么做就能省去把所有东西都带上的麻烦,或者能省去他们到了一个地方后从头再造物品的时间。

    但关于这些贮藏物,还有另一种理论,基于发现的矛头的质量。一些贮藏物的矛头和其它矛头不同,比如说在克洛维斯人的扎营点发现的矛头吧。一方面,这些贮藏物矛头很大,达到普通矛头的两倍大。这些矛头太大了,以至于你不能将一个矛系在长矛上,并期望在任何距离上精确地掷出长矛。那它们有什么用呢?

    一开始人们认为这些矛头未完工,即有人在做这些矛头途中不得不暂停工作,把这些矛头和别的贮藏物放在一起,以后再接着做。问题是:要做一个矛头,不可能一开始就用和这些贮藏物矛头一样大的石头,因为这意味着要凿开很多石头才行。造工具的人会从更小的石块入手。而且实际上,很多矛头根本算不上未完工,它们都展示了杰出的工艺和对细节的关注。不仅仅就工艺方面而言,还有原材料方面,这些贮藏物矛头看上去都是用顶好的石头做的。

    那么我们要问了,这些矛头会不会另有用处?也许它们不仅仅是工具。这么看吧。当克洛维斯人刚来到美洲时,对于这个新环境,他们有很多东西要学。经过一段时间,他们会开始意识到,一些地方是比较特别的,较为重要的,出于某些原因。可能那儿通常都有水,或在那儿打猎特别好。所以,可能这些贮藏物是用来标志这个地方很重要的。

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    解析

    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位

    Professor: We will be looking at the original settlement of the Americas next, and I’ll spend the next few classes talking about the Clovis people and the two big questions archaeologists have about them.

    The two big questions are, when did the Clovis people arrive in the Americas? And of course, were they the first people in the Western hemisphere? And we’ll get to that. But for today, let’s try to get an idea about, well, a question that’s not addressed as much as the others and that’s – what was their culture like? And how do we figure that out?

    选项分析

    文章开门见山表达了会讲解clovis people, 随后提到了what was their culture。然后依次介绍了他们出现的大致年份,接下来讲到了caches 以及部分large caches 的可能的解释

    C选项的意思是讨论clovis caches 的可能的解释,是对全文主旨最准确的概括

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