Official 13 Set 5

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  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
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Medieval Poetry

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the main purpose of the lecture?
  • A. To investigate the information known about the troubadours

  • B. To explain the role of patriotic poetry during medieval times

  • C. To explain why opinions about knights changed during the medieval period

  • D. To compare two different types of medieval poems

显示答案 正确答案: D

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR: Listen to part of a lecture in a poetry class, the professor is discussing medieval poetry.

    MALE PROFESSOR:OK, so the two poems we are looking at today fall into the category of medieval times, which was how long ago?

    FEMALE STUDENT:Almost a thousand years ago, right?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes, that's right.

    FEMALE STUDENT:[Interrupting] But, professor, are you sure these are poems?I mean I thought poems were shorter; these were more like long stories.I mean, one of them was all about love, but the other one, the chan—[shan]—chan— whatever it's called, the other one, well it was all about fighting and battles.I mean, can both of them be considered poems?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, think back to the very beginning of this course.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Aha.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Remember how we, we define poetry?In the very broadest sense, we said it's written to evoke, to make you, the audience, have some kind of the emotional experience through the use of imagery, um, some kind of predictable rhythm, and usually, but not always, there’s more than one meaning implied with the words that are used.

    Let's start with the Chanson poetry first. That’s [slowly] chanson.Chanson poems became popular in Europe, particularly in France, and the term is actually short for a longer French phrase that translates to a... huh... songs of deeds.Now they were called songs of deeds because [ironically] strangely enough, they were written to describe the heroic deeds or actions of warriors, the knights during conflicts.We don't know a lot about the authors, it's still contested somewhat, but we’re pretty sure about who the chanson poems were written for.That is, they were written for the knights and the lords - the nobility that they served.The poems were sung, performed by a minstrel, a singer who travelled from castle to castle, singing to the local lord and his knights.Ah... well, would someone summarize the main features of the Chanson poem you read?

    MALE STUDENT:Well, there's a hero, and a knight, who goes to battle, and he is admired for his courage, bravery and loyalty, loyalty to the lord he serves, his country and his fellow warriors in the field.He's a... he has a... he's a skilled fighter, willing to face the most extreme dangers, sacrificial, willing that sacrifice anything and everything to protect his king and country.

    Ok, now ,given that the intended audiences for these poems were knights and lords.What can we say about the purpose of Chanson poetry?What kinds of feelings were it meant to provoke?

    I guess they must been really appealing to those knights and lords who were listening to them.Hearing the songs probably made them feel more patriotic, made them feel like it was a good noble thing to serve their countries in whatever way they could.

    Good, we've got a pretty good picture of what the Chanson hero was like.Now let's compare that to the hero in the other poem.The other poem is an example of what's called Romance Poetry.And the hero in the romance poem was also a knight.But what made the knight in Romance Poetry different from the knight in Chanson poetry.Well, first, the purpose of the hero's actions was different.The hero in the Romance Poetry is independent, purely solitary in a way, not like the Chanson poet who was always surrounded by his fighting companions.He doesn't engage in the conflict to protect his lord or country.He does it for the sake of adventure, to improve himself, to show he's worthy of respect and love from his lady.He's very conscious of the particular rules of social behavior he has to live up to somehow.And all of those actions are for the purpose of proving that he is an upright,moral, well-mannered, well behaved individual.You may have noticed that in Chanson poetry there isn't much about the hero's feelings.The focus is on the actions, the deeds.But the Romance Poetry describes a lot of the inner feelings, the motivations, psychology you could say, of the knight trying to improve himself, to better himself, so that he's worthy of the love of a woman.

    What explains this difference?Well, un,digging into the historical context tells us a lot.Romance Poetry emerged a few generations after Chanson, and its roots were in geographical regions of France that were calmer, where conflict wasn't central to people's lives.More peaceful times meant there was more time for education, travel, more time for reflection.Another name for Romance Poetry that's often synonymous with it is troubadour poetry.

    Troubadours were the authors of these new Romance poems.And we know a lot more about the troubadours than we do about the Chanson authors, because they often had small biographical sketches added to their poems that gave pretty specific information about their social status, geographical location and small outline of their career.These information wasn't particularly reliable because they were sometimes based on fictitious stories of great adventure or scraped together from parts of different poems.But there is enough there to squeeze or infer some facts about their social class.The political climate have settle down enough so that troubadours had the luxury of being able to spend most if not all of their time, creating, crafting or composing their love songs for their audiences.And yes these poems were also sung. Many troubadours were able to make a living being full-time poets, which should tell you something about the value of that profession during the medieval times.

  • 旁白:请听一段诗歌课上的演讲,教授正在讨论中世纪诗歌。

    教授:好的,那么今天我们要讲的两首诗歌都属于中世纪时代的诗歌类型,那是多少年以前的呢?

    学生:几乎是一千年前对吧?

    教授:是的,回答正确。

    学生:但是,老师,你确定这些是诗歌吗?我的意思是,诗歌应该更简短点吧,这些更像是长故事。就是,其中一个是关于爱情的,但另一首Chan…Chan…不管怎么念的,都是关于对抗和战役的。我的意思就是,这两首诗歌都可以当做诗歌吗?

    教授:嗯,回想一下这课程开始的时候,我们说了什么。

    学生:啊哈。

    教授:记得我们是怎么定义诗歌的吗?最广义上讲,我们说,诗歌是通过使用某种意象写来唤起你,也就是读者的某种情绪体验,某些可预测的节律,通常,也并不是一直都这样,诗歌中的字句都隐含着不止一种意思。

    我们先看看香颂(Chanson),这读作Chanson。香颂在欧洲很受欢迎,特别是法国广为流传,这种词实际上是来自一个较长的法语的简称,翻译过来叫做行动颂歌。如今这些诗歌之所以称为行动颂歌,是因为,很奇怪,它们所描述的是冲突中的勇士和骑士的英勇事迹或行为。我们对作者了解不多,某种程度上还存在异议,但我们能够确定的是这些诗歌是为谁而写的。那就是,为了歌颂骑士和君主的,歌颂他们的高尚。这些诗歌是一位游吟诗人演唱的,从一个城堡到另一个城堡,唱歌给当地的君王和骑士听。有没有人能概括一下你们读过的香颂诗歌的主要特征?

    学生:嗯,有一位主角,一名骑士,他去参战,他被自己的勇气,勇敢和忠诚启发到,忠诚即为他对皇室,国家和战场上的战士同仁的忠诚。他是一个,一个,他是一个训练有素的战斗士,愿意面对最为极端的危险,富有牺牲精神,愿意牺牲一切以保卫自己的国王和国家。

    好的,现在假设这些诗歌面向的是骑士和君王。那么诗人写香颂的目的是什么呢?它们是要激发读者什么样的情感呢?

    我想这些香颂一定对骑士和君王很有吸引力。听这些歌很可能让他们感到更有爱国之心,让他们感到为国家服务还是做什么其他事情,是一件高尚的事。

    不错,我们已经对香颂的主要特征有一定了解了。现在我们将香颂跟其他诗歌中的主角进行比较一下。一个其他诗歌的例子就是我们所说的浪漫诗歌浪漫诗歌中的主角也是骑士。但浪漫诗歌中的人物跟香颂中的其实有什么不同呢?嗯,首先,主角的行为目的不同。浪漫诗歌中的主角是独立的,某种层面上讲是纯粹独立的,不像香颂中的主角,一直被各种战斗伙伴围着。他不会为了保护气君主或国家而处于冲突中。他之所以参战是为了冒险,改善自我,显示他是值得别人尊重的,表明他对爱人或妻子的爱。对于他必须或多或少遵循的社会行为的特定规则,他心里很是清楚。所有这些行动都是为了证明,他是一个正直,有道德,有修养,举止得当的个体。你们可能注意到了,香颂中没有过多的关于主角感情的描述。其重点在于主角的行动和行为。而浪漫是个则大笔描写了其内在感受,动力,还有,可以说是心理活动,这是描述试图改善自我的其实,提升了自我,他便有价值,能得到女性的青睐。

    怎么解释这种不同呢?嗯,探究一下历史背景知识的话我们便可以知道很多。浪漫诗歌在香颂之后几代人后突起,其根源在法国某些地区,那里冲突并不是人们生活的中心。和平时间越长,就意味着人们又更多时间受教育,旅游,更多时间反思。另一个描述浪漫诗歌的名字是游吟诗。

    游吟诗人创作了新浪漫诗歌。而我们对游吟诗人的理解比对香颂诗人的理解要多得多,因为他们经常会在诗歌后面附上自己的传记概述,这些概述给我们提供了更为详细的信息,关于他们社会地位,地理环境和职业掠影。这些信息不是特别可靠,因为它们有时是基于科幻故事,伟大的冒险故事或从不同诗歌中摘取的部分内容拼凑而成的。但这些已经足够让我们从中榨取或推断出某些它们社会地位的事实情况。政治气候已经够平稳了,这样游吟诗人便可以奢侈得享受将大部分时间花在创作,精心制作或谱写献给观众的爱情之歌。而是的,这些诗歌也是歌曲;很多游吟诗人能够成为全职诗人而糊口谋生,中世纪时期这些诗人应该会告诉你某些关于该职业的价值所在。

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    题型分类:主旨题
    原文定位:

    OK, so the two poems we are looking at today fall into the category of medieval times, which was how long ago?
    选项分析:
    文章一开始就提到,这次要讲两首中世纪的诗,主要比较两种不同风格的中世纪诗歌,选项D正确。

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