Official 04 Set 2

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
置顶

Displacement Activity

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Method s of observing unusual animal behavior.

  • B. A theory about ways birds attract mates.

  • C. Ways animals behave when they have conflicting drives.

  • D. Criteria for classifying animal behaviors.

显示答案 正确答案: C

我的笔记 编辑笔记

/
  • 原文
  • 译文
  • 查看听力原文

    关闭显示原文

    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class. The class is discussing animal behavior.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:OK, the next kind of animal behavior I want to talk about might be familiar to you.You may have seen, for example, a bird that's in the middle of a mating ritual.And, and suddenly it stops and preens--you know, it takes a few moments to straighten its feathers--and then returns to the mating ritual.This kind of behavior-- this doing something that seems completely out of place--is what we call a displacement activity.

    Displacement activities are activities that animals engage in when they have conflicting drives—if, if we take our example from a minute ago—if, if the bird is afraid of its mate, it's conflicted, it wants to mate, but it's also afraid and wants to run away, so instead it starts grooming itself.So the displacement activity, the, the grooming, the straightening of its feathers seems to be an irrelevant behavior.

    So what do you think another example of a displacement activity might be?

    MALE STUDENT:How about an animal that, um, instead of fighting its enemy or running away, it attacks a plant or a bush?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:That's a really good suggestion, Carl, but that's called redirecting.The animal is redirecting its behavior to another object, in this case, the plant or the bush.But that's not an irrelevant or inappropriate behavior—the behavior makes sense—it’s appropriate under the circumstances, but what doesn't make sense is the object the behavior's directed towards.OK, who else? Carol?

    FAMALE STUDENT:I think I read in another class about an experiment, um, where an object that the animal was afraid of was put next to its food—next to the animal's food—and the animal, it was conflicted between confronting the object, and eating the food, so instead it just fell asleep. Like that? [with uncertainty]

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:That's exactly what I mean.Displacement occurs because the animal's got two conflicting drives, two competing urges, in this case, fear and hunger—and what happens is they inhibit each other—they cancel each other out in a way, and a third, seemingly irrelevant behavior surfaces … through a process that we call disinhibition.

    Now, in disinhibition, the basic idea is that two drives that seem to inhibit, to hold back a third drive, well, well, they get in the way of each other in a, in a conflict situation, and somehow lose control, lose their inhibiting effect on that third behavior…wh-which means that the third drive surfaces...it-it's expressed in the animal's behavior.

    Now, these displacement activities can include feeding, drinking, grooming, even sleeping.These are what we call “comfort behaviors.” So why do you think displacement activities are so often comfort behaviors, such as grooming?

    MALE STUDENT:Maybe because it's easy for them to do—I mean, grooming is like one of the most accessible things an animal can do—it’s something they do all the time, and they have the–the stimulus right there, on the outside of their bodies in order to do the grooming—or if food is right in front of them.Basically, they don't have to think very much about those behaviors.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Professor, isn't it possible that animals groom because they've gotten messed up a little from fighting or mating?I mean, if a bird's feathers get ruffled, or an animal's fur—maybe it's not so strange for them to stop and tidy themselves up at that point.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:That's another possible reason, although it doesn't necessarily explain other behaviors such as eating, drinking, or sleeping.What's interesting is that studies have been done that suggest that the animal's environment may play a part in determining what kind of behavior it displays.For example, there's a bird–the wood thrush, anyway when the wood thrush is in an attack-escape conflict—that is, it's caught between the two urges to escape from or attack an enemy—if it's sitting on a horizontal branch, it'll wipe its beak on its perch.If it's sitting on a vertical branch, it, um, will groom its breast feathers.The immediate environment of the bird—its immediate, um, its relationship to its immediate environment seems to play a part in which behavior it will display.

  • 旁白:请听一段生物学课上的演讲。课堂上正在讨论动物的行为。

    教授:好的,接下来我要讲到的动物行为,大家可能都很熟悉。比如,你们可能见过某一只鸟在进行交配过程中。突然停下,花一些时间去整理自己的羽毛,然后又回到交配状态。这种行为,这种似乎完全突发性发生的行为,就是我们所说的“转移行为”。

    转移行为指的是当动物遇到冲突性驱动时的某些行为。我们看一下刚刚举到的例子,如果那只鸟害怕其交配伙伴,它便面临着冲突。它想交配,但也因为害怕想逃离。所以,反之,它开始整理自己的羽毛。这样,转移行为,即整理羽毛,将自己的羽毛理齐了,似乎是一种毫无相关的行为。

    那么,你们知道另一个转移行为的例子可能是什么吗?

    学生:嗯,这个例子怎样:动物没有进攻敌人或逃跑,反而攻击某一棵植物或灌木丛。

    教授:这提议真不错,Karl。但这叫做“重新指向”动物正在将其行为重新指向到另外的物体上,在这里,是指某一植物或灌木丛。但这可不是一种无关或不恰当的行为。,这种行为是有意义的。在某种条件下是适当的行为,而没有任何意义的则是其行为指向的物体。好了,还有其他人吗?Carol?

    学生:我想我在另一个程上读过一次实验资料,实验中将动物所害怕的东西放在其食物旁,紧挨着动物的食物,而动物纠结于面对害怕的物体和进食两难中,它选择了睡觉。像这样的例子吗?

    教授:这正是我说的。转移发生的时候动物是面临着两种冲突的驱动,两种相互矛盾的冲动,在这个例子中,就是恐惧和饥饿。而接下来发生的就是,两者会相互抑制,他们会以某种方式相互抵消,而此时第三方,似乎毫无相关的行为就会出现,我们称之为“抑制解除”。

    而抑制解除,基本上的意思是两种驱动似乎会抑制或克制第三种驱动。或者,嗯,他们会在一种冲突的情况下相互阻碍,有时会失去控制,失去对第三种行为的抑制作用。它表现在动物的行为上。

    那么,这些转移行为包括吃喝,整理羽毛,甚至睡觉。这些是我们所说的“中和行为”。那么你们为什么会认为转移行为经常都是中和行为呢,比如休整羽毛?

    学生:也许是因为他们更容易这样做?我是说,休整羽毛就像是动物最容易上手的行为。这是他们总会做的事情,而在他们身体之外存在着某些刺激物,让他们做出整理羽毛的行为,或者是食物就在他们面前。基本上说,他们在做出这种行为的时候不需要想很多。

    学生:教授,有没有这样的可能,即动物整理羽毛是因为他们在交战或交配的时候把羽毛弄乱了。我是说,如果一只鸟的羽毛起皱,或某种动物的毛发,也许这对动物来说,看起来太奇怪了,所以他们需要整理一下自己的外观。

    教授:这是另一种可能因素,尽管不一定足以解释其他行为,像吃喝睡觉。有趣的是,某些研究已经表明动物的生活环境也许对其会表现出什么行为有决定性的作用。比如说,有一种叫画眉的鸟。不管怎样,当画眉鸟遇到进攻或逃离的冲突时,即当画眉鸟出于要不逃跑危险要不进攻敌人的境地时,如果它是停在水平树枝上的话,它会将自己的喙往栖木上磨而如果是停在垂直的树干上的话,它便会整理其胸前的羽毛。鸟所处的即时环境,是即时的,其与这种即时环境的关系似乎对其表现出来的行为起到一定的作用。

  • 官方解析
  • 网友贡献解析
  • 本题对应音频:
    2 感谢 不懂
    音频1
    解析

    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位

    This kind of behavior-- this doing something that seems completely out of place--is what we call a displacement activity.

    Displacement activities are activities that animals engage in when they have conflicting drives—if, if we take our example from a minute ago—if, if the bird is afraid of its mate, it’s conflicted, it wants to mate, but it’s also afraid and wants to run away, so instead it starts grooming itself.

    选项分析

    教授给出今天的主题,要讲displacement activity,并给出了解释,选项C就是这个学术名词的同义替换。选项A,methods未提及。选项B,attract mates是细节。D选项,criteria未提及。
    标签

题目讨论

如果对题目有疑问,欢迎来提出你的问题,热心的小伙伴会帮你解答。

如何吃透这篇文章?

Displacement Activity

0人精听过

预计练习时间:16min34s

马上精听本文

最新提问