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Electric Guitar

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What does the professor mainly discuss?
  • A. Musical genres that feature the electric guitar

  • B. Technological advances that made electric guitars possible

  • C. The popularity of rock-and-roll music

  • D. The evolution of the electric guitar

显示答案 正确答案: D

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a music history class.The professor has been discussing music of the twentieth century.

    MALE PROFESSOR:And what instrument comes to mind when you think of rock and roll?

    FEMALE STUDENT:The electric guitar?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Exactly. I think it's fair to say that the sound of the electric guitar typifies the rock-and-roll genre, which became popular in the 1950s.But really, the instrument we know today was the result of a continuing development that started, for all practical purposes, in the 1920s.But long before that even, people were experimenting with ways to modify traditional acoustic guitars.The first guitars were wooden-this is the Spanish guitar-and the strings were made from animal products.Then came steel strings, and that led to the lap guitar-which is also called the steel guitar because the player slides a steel rod up and down the neck.And those are all acoustic guitars, OK?But then, eventually, we have electric guitars.Over the years, many inventors and musicians contributed to the design of these instruments, and each design was intended to alter the sound in some way-at first, at least with the electric guitar, to make it louder.

    [Slight pause to get back to chronology] Eh, so let's get back to when the steel guitar was first introduced in the United States.It was right after the Spanish-American War...in the late 1890s.U.S. sailors who were stationed in Hawaii,[brief aside] then a U.S. territory, were very enamored with the music they heard there; uh, Hawaiian music was based on the steel guitar I just described.Some sailors learned how to play the steel guitar and brought it home to the States.Before long, Hawaiian steel guitar music was all the rage in the mainland U.S.It actually had a strong influence on the development of several musical genres-rock and roll, most notably, but also jazz and blues.

    Anyway... by the 1920s, with the advent of the public dance movement, people were gathering in large groups to listen to steel-guitar music.But they had trouble hearing it, especially in large, public settings.As I mentioned, the instrument was played horizontally, on the lap. Since the strings faced upward, the sound was projected toward the ceiling rather than outward toward the audience.Something had to be done because the music venues and the audiences kept getting larger and larger.So, what would you do?

    MALE STUDENT:Find a way to amplify the sound?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes. And to do that, inventors started attaching electronic devices-electrical coils-to acoustic guitars. And the electronics worked!But attaching electronics didn't just affect how loudly you could play; it also changed the quality of the sound.These early electric guitars were hollow, and these early amplifiers caused vibrations in the bodies of the instruments.So, as the sound got louder, it became more distorted.Fuzzy sounding.And what musicians at the time wanted was a pure, clean sound.

    MALE STUDENT:So, where does Les Paul fit in? Wasn't he the first to electrify acoustic guitars?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Uh, no. Electrified guitars already existed by the time Les Paul came into the picture, around 1940.

    What Paul did was experiment with ways of removing the distortions. And he succeeded! [lowly]He designed a guitar with a solid body that relied solely on electronics.Paul's solid body eliminated the vibrations, and thus, the distortions.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Excuse me, but when I think of electric guitar music, I think of Jimi Hendrix.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Jimi Hendrix, one of my favorites!

    FEMALE STUDENT:But Hendrix's style really was all about distortion. That's what's so great about his music-all those special effects.I think a lot of rock-and-roll fans preferred that to a pure sound.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yeah, you're getting ahead of me here...but good! Because the point I was gonna make is that the sound of rock and roll changed over the years, and the designs and technology of electric guitars made those changes possible.

    So whereas Les Paul's goal was to remove the distortion, later musicians wanted to produce it.And by the time Jimi Hendrix came around...Well, essentially, Hendrix reinvented the electric guitar-in the sense that he created amazing effects and vibrations that changed the sound of rock and roll completely.So, eventually, people tried to improve on Les Paul's model, [to be diplomatic] well, to modify it, I should say.

  • 旁白:听一段音乐史课程。教授正在讲20世纪的音乐。

    教授:当你们想到摇滚时,脑海中会想到什么乐器?

    学生:电吉他?

    教授:对。我认为电吉他的声音可以说是摇滚音乐流派的特征,在20世纪50年代变得很流行。但这其实是人们出于之后持续发展实用目的造出来的,在20世纪20年代。但在更久以前(20世纪20年代前),人们就不断实验以改造传统原声吉他了。最初的吉他是木制的---这是西班牙吉他---弦是动物制品。然后出现了钢丝弦,然后钢吉他产生了,也称钢丝吉他,因为演奏者会在琴颈上下滑动一个钢棒。这些都是原声吉他。接着,我们终于有了电吉他。多年以来,很多发明家和音乐家都为这些乐器的设计做出了贡献,每一款设计都是为了在某种程度上改变声音,在最初(至少电吉他是这样)是为了让声音更大。

    我们回到钢丝吉他刚引入美国的时候吧。那是美西战争刚刚结束...19世纪90年代后期。在夏威夷(那时候夏威夷是美国托管地)驻扎的美国士兵,非常喜欢他们在那儿听到的音乐,夏威夷音乐正是基于我刚刚描述的钢丝吉他。一些水手学会了弹钢丝吉他,并将其带回了美国。不久,夏威夷钢丝吉他在美国大陆就火起来了。事实上,钢丝吉他对很多音乐流派的发展都产生了重要的影响,最主要的是摇滚乐,但也包括爵士乐和布鲁斯音乐。

    不管怎样,直到20世纪20年代,随着大众舞蹈运动的出现,大批群众聚在一起听钢丝吉他乐。但他们很难听到钢丝吉他乐,特别是在大型公众场所里。正如我提到的,这个乐器在演奏时是水平放的,放在大腿上。既然琴弦是朝上的,声音就向天花板传了,而不是向外传到观众那儿。人们必须做些什么,因为这些音乐集会和观众的规模都越来越大了。你会怎么办?

    学生:想办法放大声音?

    教授:对。为了放大声音,发明家们开始给原声吉他接上电子设备和电子线圈。电子设备起作用了!但接上电子设备不仅仅影响了演奏时的音量,还改变了音质。早期的电吉他是空心的,而且早期的扩音器会造成乐器器身产生振动。随着声音变大,声音也扭曲得更厉害了。变得更模糊了。当时的音乐家希望得到的是纯净的声音。

    学生:这和莱斯·保罗有什么关系呢?他不是第一个将原声吉他电子化的人吗?

    教授:不。电吉他早在1940年莱斯·保罗进入人们视线以前就存在了。

    保罗所做的是不断实验,找出消除失真音色的方法,他成功了。他设计出一款吉他,有坚固的器身,仅靠电子设备发音。保罗发明的坚固的器身消除了振动,也就消除了失真音色。

    学生:抱歉,在我想到电吉他乐时,我会想到吉米·亨德里克斯。

    教授:吉米·亨德里克斯,我最爱的音乐家之一。

    学生:但亨德里克斯的风格都是和失真音色相关的,这就是他的音乐为什么这么棒,因为有很多特殊音效。我想大部分摇滚乐迷更喜欢扭曲的声音,而不是纯净的乐声。

    教授:对。你赶在我前面了。但这很好,因为我将要提到的正是摇滚乐这么多年来声音的演变,而电吉他的设计和科技正使这些改变变为可能。

    尽管莱斯·保罗的目标是为了消除声音扭曲,后来的音乐家们又想制造失真音色。直到吉米·亨德里克斯出现......本质上,亨德里克斯重新发明了电吉他,他创造出惊人的声音效果和振动,彻底改变摇滚乐的声音。最终,人们就在莱斯·保罗的吉他模型上进行改良,或者,我该称之为“修改”。

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    解析

    题型分析:主旨题

    原文定位Professor: And what instrument comes to mind when you think of rock ‘n’ roll?

    Student: The electric Guitar?

    Professor: Exactly. I think it’s fair to say that the sound of the electric guitar typifies the rock ‘n’ roll genre, which became popular in the 1950s.But really the instrument we know today was the result of a continuing development that started for our practical purposes in the 1920s.

    选项分析

    教授一开始提问引出关键信息 electric Guitar,后面的 but 转折提到了continuing development.

    D 选项与文意关键信息完全一致,是对全文主旨最准确的概括

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