Official 42 Set 5

  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6


  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Why fungi cannot grow well in polluted ecosystems

  • B. Why fungi pose a danger to the underground water system

  • C. How to prevent heavy metals from getting into the soil

  • D. How fungi can clean up pollution that is in the soil

显示答案 正确答案: D

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an environmental science class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:When you try to imagine a fungus, you probably picture a mushroom popping up out of the ground... and think that's it.But a fungus like that... most of it actually lives underground.And fungi in general are often an important active component of the soil.A fungus secretes enzymes into the soil, enzymes that break down ...decompose organic material in the soil... so the fungus can absorb this material and get nutrition.

    But to me what's most interesting about this process is how it may enable fungi to help clean up environmental pollution in the soil...And that's thanks in part to a substance in their cell walls called chitin.

    Now a lot of people think fungi are related to plants, but they're not.Believe it or not, the only other place chitin is found in abundance is in the exoskeletons of insects, crabs, and such!So, in this sense, fungi are more associated with insects than with any plant.Strange, huh?And the chitin in the cell walls of a filamentous fungus...

    [resuming] ...A filament, of course, is a long, threadlike structure-cells joined end to end.Filamentous fungi grow in soil and in decaying vegetation, and, as their name implies, they exist as filaments.And, although regarded as microorganisms, filaments from a single fungus can fan out to occupy many square meters or even several square kilometers of forest floor.Their vast surface area allows them to break down and take in huge amounts of nutrients.But beyond that, the filaments also pull out of the soil a great deal of the [slowly] pollution that might be in there, especially heavy metals.

    And here's where chitin comes in.Like some other substances in fungal cell walls, chitin forms strong chemical bonds to heavy metals in the a process we call [stress first syllable] adsorption.

    Now don't confuse this with absorption, where a substance is absorbed into a cell, into the interior of a cell.I mean that's happening here too, but adsorption means binding to the outer surface of the cell.And a filamentous fungus can adsorb toxic heavy metals...bind them to the surface of its enormous network of filaments-and thereby detoxify a large soil ecosystem.The heavy metals are still there, but instead of leaching into the water system and contaminating the water underground, large amounts of these metals may remain bound to the the cell walls of filamentous fungi in the soil...and thus remain chemically inactive for as long as thirty years-perhaps longer.

    In fact, we can actually use the cell walls of filamentous fungi as a filter, even after the fungi are dead.For example, the pharmaceutical industry grows filamentous fungi in large quantities in the lab.Like, to produce the antibiotic penicillin, the drug company grows the fungus Penicillium.And after the penicillin is extracted, these dead Penicillium filaments...we can use the chitin in their cell walls to make industrial filters to adsorb heavy metals.We can put these filters into waste pipes from industrial processes and use the filters to trap heavy metals, like mercury and zinc.Later, we can chemically extract the heavy metals and reuse the filter over and over.

    Now, going back to the [stress first syllable] absorption of toxic metals into the body of the fungus, let's turn our attention to mushrooms.Like other fungi, mushrooms can absorb large quantities of heavy metals.In fact, they may contain up to two-and-a-half times the concentration of toxic metals found in the soil they grow in.So mushrooms, at least what we see above ground...we can potentially harvest them and then, once and for all, safely dispose of the pollutants contained within them.In fact, to clean up...especially the groundwater system... permanently, harvesting mushrooms is probably the best way to go.For some reason, this hasn't happened yet, as far as I know.But I can easily envision cultivating mushrooms for the sole purpose of detoxifying a large underground ecosystem.

  • 旁白:请听环境科学课上的部分内容。









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    题干分析:根据fungi get their food定位

    原文定位:A fungus secretes enzymes into the soil, enzymes that break down …decompose organic material in the soil… so the fungus can absorb this material and get nutrition.