A. How the man should narrow the focus of his paper
B. Whether a focus on wood harvesting is an appropriate topic for the man's paper
C. Why the man became interested in wood harvesting techniques
D. Why different ancient cultures used different wood harvesting techniques
NARRATOR:Listen to a conversation between a student and an anthropology professor.
FEMALE PROFESSOR:So, how was the field trip to the nature center yesterday? You're in that biology class, aren't you?
MALE STUDENT:Yeah, I am.The trip was amazing.We took a hike through the woods, and our guide pointed out all kinds of animal and plant species.She could identify every bird, every tree. I have to tell you,I was very impressed with her knowledge.
FEMALE PROFESSOR:I'm glad to hear you enjoyed the trip.
MALE STUDENT:Well, I'm interested in getting an advanced degree in forestry, after I graduate from here,so I love all this stuff.And actually, yesterday's trip got me thinking about my research paper for your class.
FEMALE PROFESSOR:Wonderful! Tell me more.
MALE STUDENT:So our guide was talking about how the human need for natural resources has shaped the environment.And I'd just assumed that the human impact on the environment was always destructive ….
FEMALE PROFESSOR:Ah, but that's not necessarily true.
MALE STUDENT:Yeah, that's what she was telling us.She said there's archaeological evidence that some prehistoric cultures relied heavily on dead wood for fuel, or, um, just cut off some of the branches of trees instead of killing the whole tree.
FEMALE PROFESSOR:It's so funny you mention that!I was just reading an article about an archaeological site in Turkey, where scientists found evidence that ancient people had been harvesting the branches from pistachio and almond trees.Of-of course, when you prune these trees-cutting off just the branches like that-you're actually encouraging more growth, and you end up with a bigger crop of nuts.So this was a pretty smart strategy for collecting wood.
MALE STUDENT:See, that's what I'd like to write about.I wanna look at ancient methods of wood harvesting that didn't result in the destruction of the whole forest.
FEMALE PROFESSOR:[warily] Hmmm … so you want to write your entire paper on wood harvesting?
MALE STUDENT:[nervously] Is-is that a problem?
FEMALE PROFESSOR:Well, it's certainly a timely topic. Researchers are investigating this now.Ah, it's just that-well,I'm not sure how it fits with the assignment.Remember, you're supposed to be focusing on a particularculture or region ….
MALE STUDENT:Yeah, um, actually I was planning on writing about the wood-harvesting practices of the people who lived here-you know, the Native Americans who were living in this area-and what that might tell us about how they lived.
FEMALE PROFESSOR:OK … well, that's a possibility.I just want to make sure you can find enough information on that topic to write a well-developed paper.I'd like you to get started on your research right away-maybe even talk to that nature guide, and show me what information you can find.Then we can talk about whether or not your topic will work.
文章开头说field trip感受如何，学生说很好，引出此行前来的目的：And actually, yesterday's trip got me thinking about my research paper for your class.
接着就说到如何让学生联想到paper的——导游告诉学生人类对环境的影响不全是坏的，比如一些史前文明在处理树木的时候的措施。这使得学生想以此为话题写个论文（See, that's what I'd like to write about. I wanna look at ancient methods of wood harvesting that didn't result in the destruction of the whole forest.）