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Art Techniques Used During the Renaissance

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What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Reasons for the transition from religious to secular themes in Renaissance art

  • B. The disproportionate influence of Italian artists during the Renaissance period

  • C. Techniques used during the Renaissance to produce realistic works of art

  • D. A comparison of themes in paintings and sculptures during the Renaissance

显示答案 正确答案: C

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    Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    As I was saying, the Renaissance period-which started in the fourteen hundreds in Europe-the Renaissance was still a pretty religious period.And that's reflected in the artwork of that time.But artists were starting to experiment with a more secular point of view as well-a tendency to also use the natural world as the subject matter for their art.

    And there were different ways that these natural themes were explored.For instance, many artists would paint portraits, while others-although this was more common in northern Europe-would make landscapes the subject of their works.But today I'd like to consider an influential Italian Renaissance artist, Leon Battista Alberti, who took a slightly different approach.

    Leon Battista Alberti was a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, poet-very wide-ranging interests-like daVinci or Michelangelo, the sort of guy for whom the term "Renaissance man" was in fact created.

    Alberti believed that the most important approach for a painter was to capture a story or narrative.Now, as I've indicated, this narrative could be either religious or secular, depending on what the work of art was for.If the work was to be placed in a church then obviously it'd have a religious theme, whereas if it was for someone's home then it could deal with a different subject matter.The exact narrative didn't really matter, so long as it was one that captivated the audience-that held the viewer's attention.

    So what is actually needed to tell a story?Well, Alberti needed characters, right?Human figures.And he wanted to represent them as realistically as possible to capture the viewer's attention.One way he achieved this was to make use of what's known as the contrapposto pose.

    A contrapposto pose basically entails showing a slight twist in the body.The shoulders and hips are usually bent in different directions.In other words, if the left shoulder is bent so that it's slightly higher than the right shoulder, then the hips will be bent so that the left side will be slightly lower than the right side.Similarly, in sculptures, most of the weight seems to be on one foot, which also results in this slanted position-making it seem like the figure is about to walk or move.This adds to the realistic aspect of the figure.

    But there are actually a lot of things that could go wrong in the attempt to create such a pose.You could make a figure's arms bigger than its legs, or the head too small for the body.Messing up the proportions can leave a figure looking cartoon-like and unnatural.But Alberti had a solution: He encouraged artists to visualize a figure's bones and structure.This would give the artist an idea of the proportions of the figure.From there, Alberti suggested the artist imagine attaching the tendons and muscles, then covering those with flesh and skin.Now, although this method may seem complicated, artists since antiquity have used anatomical observations to try to get the proportions of the human figure as accurate as possible-though obviously not to the degree that Alberti was recommending.

    Now, in addition to characters, the setting is extremely important, especially when attempting to tell a story realistically.Renaissance artists essentially needed to create a three-dimensional scene on a two-dimensional surface.They accomplished this by the use of perspective-a relatively new idea for artists at the time.In particular, the type of perspective that Alberti advocated was called linear one-point perspective.In fact, Alberti was one of the artists who developed the geometry behind linear one-point perspective.

    Linear perspective basically consists of drawing straight lines that extend from the forefront of the painting into the background-lines that seem to be parallel to each other, but which actually converge on a single point in the horizon, called the vanishing point.By drawing figures and objects smaller and smaller as the lines get closer together, the artist is able to create depth in a painting.This gives the illusion of a third dimension and makes the work of art more realistic.

  • 请听艺术史课上的部分内容。

    就像我在说的,文艺复兴时期15世纪开始于欧洲,文艺复兴时期的宗教色彩还是非常浓厚的。而这反映在了当时的艺术作品中。但是当时的艺术家们也在开始尝试一种更现世的视角,一种也使用自然的世界作为他们艺术主题的趋势。

    对这些自然主题的探索有不同的方式。比如,很多艺术家会画肖像,虽然这在北欧更常见一些,但其他人会把山水作为他们作品的主题。不过今天我想来讲讲一位颇具影响力的意大利文艺复兴艺术家Leon Battista Alberti,他的做法有些不同。

    Leon Battista Alberti是一位画家、雕塑家、建筑家、音乐家、诗人他的兴趣非常广泛,就像达芬奇或米开朗琪罗一样,“文艺复兴人”(形容多才多艺的人)这个词实际上就是为他们这种人创造的。

    Alberti认为对一个画家来说最重要的行为就是捕捉一个故事或者叙事。正如我提到过的,这种故事可以是宗教性质的或者现世题材的,取决于这个艺术品的用途。如果这个作品要被放在教堂里,那么显然,它要有一个宗教性的主题,然而,如果是要放在某个人家里,那它可以涉及一个不同的主题。确切的故事并不重要,只要它能俘获欣赏者,也就是能抓住观赏者的注意力就行。

    那么要讲一篇故事真正需要什么?Alberti需要角色,对吗?人物形象。而且为了吸引观赏者的注意,他想把它们呈现得尽可能逼真一些。他实现这一点的一个方法就是使用“扭曲姿态”。

    “扭曲姿态”主要需要展现出身体的一个轻微扭曲。肩膀和臀部通常朝着不同方向弯曲。换句话说,如果左肩膀有所弯曲,这样它就比右肩膀稍微高一些,然后臀部也会弯曲,这样左边就会比右边稍微低一些。相似的,在雕塑中,大部分中心似乎都在一只脚上,这也导致了这种倾斜的姿势,让它看起来似乎这个人物准备要走或移动。这增加了这个人物的逼真度。

    但实际上,在试图制造这样一个姿势时,有很多事情可能会出错。你可能会把人物的胳膊画得比腿大,或者把头部画得太大,和身体不搭。搞错了比例会把人物画得像卡通人物,一点儿不自然。但是Alberti有解决办法:他鼓励画家们设想一个人物的骨骼和构造。他鼓励画家们设想一个人物的骨骼和构造。从那一步,Alberti建议画家们想象着在上面加上肌腱和肌肉,然后在这上面覆盖上肉和皮肤。虽然这种方法看上去有些复杂,但画家们从古代起就使用了解剖观察来试着尽可能精准地弄清人类的身材比例,虽然显然没有达到Alberti推荐的那种程度。

    除了人物之外,环境也极其重要,尤其是在试图逼真地讲述一个故事的时候。文化复兴艺术家们本质上需要在一个二维的表面上创作出一个三维的景象。他们通过运用透视法实现了这一点,这对当时的艺术家来说是一个相对较新的概念。尤其是Alberti提倡的这种透视法被称为“线性一点透视法”。事实上,Alberti是开发出了线性一点透视法背后的几何结构的艺术家之一。

    线性透视法主要由画从画的最前部延伸到后面的直线组成,这些直线似乎是互相平行的,但实际上汇聚到了水平线上的一个单独的点,这个点叫做没影点。通过把人物和物体画得越来越小,随着这些线条离彼此越来越近,画家能够在画上创造出深度。这产生了一种第三维度的错觉,并且把这个艺术品变得更逼真了。

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    题型分类:主旨题

    原文定位:文章开头无信号

    选项分析:教授开篇说探索natural themes有不同的方法然后从LBA这个艺术家说起听全文可知是围绕创作技艺展开的选项C正确

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