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Ancient Roman Sculpture

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What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Different views of a type of sculpture popular in ancient Roman times

  • B. Evidence that Romans had outstanding artistic ability

  • C. The differences between Greek sculpture and Roman sculpture

  • D. The relationship between art and politics in ancient Roman times

显示答案 正确答案: A

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Today, we'll continue our examination of ancient Roman sculpture.We've already looked at portrait sculpture which are busts created to commemorate people who had died and we've looked at relief sculpture, or sculpting on walls.And today we look at yet another category of sculpture–copies.Roman sculptors often made copies of famous Greek sculptures.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Why did they do that?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, no one knows for sure.You see, in the late fourth century B.C., the Romans began a campaign to expand the Roman Empire... and in 300 years they had conquered most of the Mediterranean area and parts of Europe.You know the saying, "To the victor belong the spoils?"Well, the Roman army returned to Rome with many works of Greek art.It's probably fair to say that the Romans were impressed by Greek art and culture– and they began making copies of the Greek statues.Now, the dominant view in traditional art history is that Roman artists lacked creativity and skill, especially compared to the Greek artists who came before them.Essentially, the traditional view a view that's been prevalent for over 250 years is that the Romans copied Greek sculptures because they couldn't create sculpture of their own.

    But, finally, some contemporary art historians have challenged this view.One is Elaine Gazda.

    Gazda says that there might be other reasons that Romans made copies.She wasn't convinced that it was because of a lack of creativity.Can anyone think of another possible reason?

    MALE STUDENT:Well...maybe they just admired the sculptures, you know,they liked the way they looked.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes! That's one of Gazda's points.Another is that while nowadays reproduction is easy, it was not so easy in Roman times.Copying statues required a lot of skill, time, and effort.So, Gazda hypothesizes that copying didn't indicate a lack of artistic imagination-or skill- on the part of Roman artists, but rather, the Romans made copies because they admired Greek sculpture.Classical Greek statues represented an idealization of the human body and were considered quite beautiful at the time.

    Gazda also believes that it's been a mistake to dismiss the Roman copies as, well, copies for copies' sake, and not to consider the Roman function and meaning of the statues.

    FEMALE STUDENT:What do you mean...the Roman function? Weren't they just for decoration?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, not necessarily.Under the emperor Augustus, at the height of the Roman Empire, portrait statues were sent throughout the empire... they were supposed to communicate specific ideas about the emperor and the imperial family, and to help inhabitants of the conquered areas become familiar with the Roman way of life.You know, Roman coins were also distributed throughout the empire.Anybody care to guess what was on them?

    MALE STUDENT:The emperor's face?

    MALE PROFESSOR:That's right.The coins were easy to distribute, and they allowed people to see the emperor, or at least his likeness, and served as an additional reminder to let them know, well, who was in charge.And the images helped people become familiar with the emperor statues of him in different roles were sent all over the empire.Now, actually some Roman sculptures were original, but others were exact copies of Greek statues.And some Roman sculptures were combinations of some sort; some combined more than one Greek statue, and others combined a Greek god or an athlete with a Roman's head.At the time of Julius Caesar, it wasn't uncommon to create statues that had the body of a god and the head of an emperor.

    And the Romans were clever... what they did was, they made plaster casts from molds of the sculptures. Then, they shipped these plaster casts to workshops all over the empire, where they were replicated in marble or bronze.And on some statues the heads were removable they could put an emperor's head on different bodies showing him doing different things.And then later, when the time came, they could even use the head of the next emperor on the same body!

  • 旁白:听下面一段艺术史课程上的演讲。

    教授:今天我们将继续关于古罗马雕塑史的讨论。我们前面已经看过了用于纪念逝者的塑像,我们也欣赏过浮雕,即在墙面上的雕塑。今天,我们将要欣赏的,是另一类雕塑即复制品。罗马雕刻家经常复制古希腊著名雕塑。

    学生:罗马人为什么会那样做呢?

    教授:嗯,我们其实也不是特别清楚。在公元 4 世纪晚期,罗马人发动了一场战役,试图扩大罗马帝国的版图。之后的 300 年里,他们征服了地中海的大部分国家和欧洲的一部分。想必大家都知道这个谚语“战利品为征服者所有”。嗯,当罗马军队回到了本土,他们手里就有很多希腊艺术品了。当然,罗马人被希腊艺术品和希腊文化震撼了,所以之后他们就开始复制古希腊艺术品了。在传世艺术学界,现在有一种主流观点是,和他们之前的希腊艺术家相比,罗马艺术家缺乏创造力和技巧。大体上说,罗马人因不自创雕塑而复制希腊艺术品,这一说法流行了250 年。

    但是,现当代的艺术史学家们颠覆了这个看法。其中一位代表人物是伊莱因伽自达。

    伽自达指出,罗马人复制希腊艺术品,可能另有原因。她并不相信罗马人缺乏创造力。同学们,你们能够想到一些其他的原因吗?

    学生:嗯,也许他们只是钦慕这些雕塑,喜欢这些雕塑的观感。

    教授:不错,这就是伽自达提出观点中的一项。另一项是,尽管今天复制一件艺术品很简单,但这并不意味着罗马时代亦是如此。复制一件艺术品,需要许多技巧、时间和精力。所以,伽自达提出假说,认为罗马人的复制品并不能表明他们缺乏艺术想象力或者艺术技巧,更确切的说,罗马人制作复制品是表明他们对希腊艺术的敬仰。古希腊雕塑展现出一种理想化的人体形态,这种形态在当时被认为是美的表现。

    伽自达相信,过去对罗马人的复制品以及罗马人复制古希腊艺术品这一行为的轻视是错误的;应该要考虑罗马雕塑的功能和意义。

    学生:您能解释一下什么是“罗马艺术品的功能”吗?这些雕塑难道不只是用来作装饰品的?

    教授:嗯,未必!在罗马帝国的鼎盛时期,肖像雕塑被送到了帝国的各个角落。他们应该是被罗马人用来传达帝国、帝国皇室的某项意图,以及帮助被罗马人征服地域的民众熟悉罗马人的生活方式。你们知道,罗马银币曾在整个国家内流通。有人想过这些硬币上刻的是什么吗?

    学生:罗马皇帝面相?

    教授:对。一方面,硬币是用来流通的;另一方面,这种硬币使得皇帝治下的民众常常能看到皇帝的面相,提醒他们到底是谁在掌控整个国家。所以,硬币上的帝王像帮助民众了解君主,当时,帝王各种不同角色的雕塑被送到了帝国各个角落。现在人们意识到,一些罗马雕塑其实是原创的,另一些是复制于希腊雕塑的。还有一些是半原创、半复刻的—这些综合性雕塑中,一部分不只参照了希腊雕塑,还有一些雕塑把古希腊神像或运动员与罗马人的头颅放在一起。在居流士担任凯撒的时代,神为体、帝为头的雕塑并不罕见。

    其实,罗马人非常聪明,他们当时从古希腊雕塑中制作出模具,然后再把模具送到帝国各个地方负责制造大理石或者青铜雕像的作坊中。并且有些模具的头部是可以更换的,他们可以把皇帝的头颅放到不同的躯干上,从而展示他不同的事迹。甚至到了后来,当时机来临时,他们可以把下一任皇帝的头颅安装在同一个躯干上。

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    题型分类:主旨题

    音频定位:And today we look at yet another category of sculpture

    选项分析:教授开篇讲今天我们来看另一种雕塑,接下来讲了两个观点:1.传统上认为罗马人技能不行所以copy了希腊人的;2.Gazda认为罗马雕塑有双重意义。选项A是全文主旨。

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