Official 41 Set 5

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
置顶

Analysing the Ownership of Artworks

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What does the professor mainly discuss?
  • A. The process art historians use to determine who created Renaissance artworks

  • B. Whether collaborative artworks are superior to those produced individually

  • C. The way that art was created during the Renaissance

  • D. The development of artistic individuality during the Renaissance

显示答案 正确答案: C

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:OK, as art historians, one of our fundamental tasks is to assign authorship to works of art, right?We're presented with a work of art, and we have to figure out who made it.But this task becomes particularly difficult when we're dealing with works produced in Italy during the Renaissance-the sixteenth, seventeenth centuries.Now why is this the case? Anyone? Emily.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Um, is it 'cause artists didn't sign their work? I mean, didn't the whole concept of the artist as an individual develop later, in like the nineteenth century?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, you're sort of on the right track.The concept of the individual artist-especially the concept of the artist as an artistic genius, bleh, struggling alone with a vision...as opposed to, say, a mere artisan-well the idea of the artist as a lone genius didn't develop until later.

    But artists, individual artists, did sign their work during the Renaissance.In fact, you could say that's part of the problem...Paintings were signed by the artist, and that used to be understood to be a mark of Renaissance individualism.If a piece had Raphael's signature on it, we assumed it was done by the great artist himself-Raphael, in the singular.

    But you see, art in Renaissance Italy was very much a collaborative business.Painters and sculptors worked in a workshop.It was almost like a small business run by...a master artist.You see, to deal with the wide variety of commissions they received-orders, basically, for specific types of art, specific projects-to handle these, master artists often employed assistants, as apprentices.An-and this was especially so if they worked on a large scale, huge paintings or sculptures, or if they were much in demand, like Raphael for instance.He worked on some large paintings: He painted frescoes for the Vatican.He also received a great many commissions.There's no way he could have completed every part of every project all by himself!

    Now these assistants might work for the master artist on a temporary or a permanent basis, and they might also specialize.For example, in Raphael's workshop, which might be called "Raphael Incorporated," one of the assistants specialized in animals.He actually painted a good number of the animals in Raphael's art.It may be that a master signing a work was simply making a declaration that the work met the standards of the shop.

    And it wasn't just painters. Sculptors also worked together; in fact, assistants were even more necessary if you were a master sculptor, because statues take longer to make than paintings.And the master had to arrange for marble to be quarried, things like that.And perhaps the most collaborative of all was architecture.There we see a real division of labor, what with carpenters, masons, unskilled labor just to carry materials to and fro, and so on.Plus, of course, your skilled artisans,who carried out the master architect's design.Think of it like, uh, a ballet, you know? All the dancers work together.There's a division of labor, people have different roles, and in order for the thing to come together, everyone needs to be aware of what others are doing, and coordinate their work, and have good timing.

    So for architecture, it's almost impossible to know who was responsible for any given detail.Was it the master architect? The mason? An assistant mason?Maybe it was even the patron, the client who was paying for the art.Remember, it wasn't yet customary for architects to give their assistants measured drawings to work from.Instructions were given orally, not in writing, so we don't have those documents to tell us what, exactly, the master architect's plans were.The only time we have written records is when the architect wasn't actually there-perhaps the architect was away on business, and had to write out instructions and send them to the shop.

    And another thing to think about: what effect do you suppose this approach would have had on innovation?I mean, since the hired artisans had been trained by other artisans, they tended to be trained to use traditional styles and techniques.So if you're a master architect, um, and you've developed your own style-say you're calling for a certain detail in a building you're designing, right?And say this detail is different-purposely different-from the established tradition, the established style.Well, most likely, when the hired artisans would execute the design, rather than follow the intended design, they'd stick with the more traditional style that they were familiar with.Workers would have to be supervised very closely to prevent this from happening.

    [disappointed] Otherwise, as often happened, there goes the designer's style and creativity.

  • 旁白:听一段艺术史课的演讲。

    教授:作为艺术史家,我们最基本的任务之一就是确定艺术作品的作者,对吧?我们面前呈现了一个艺术作品,而我们要弄清楚这是出自谁之手。但是当我们对待文艺复兴时期也就是16世纪、17世纪出自意大利的作品时,这个任务就变得特别困难了。为什么会这样呢?有人知道吗?Emily你来说。

    学生:是因为那时候艺术家不在他们的作品中署名吗?我的意思是,个体艺术家这整个概念不是后来才发展出来的吗?好像是19世纪的时候?

    教授:你的方向是对的。个体艺术家这个概念,尤其是有着想象力的独自挣扎的艺术天才...而不仅仅是个工匠,这个独立艺术家的概念是直到后来才发展出来的。

    但是艺术家,个体艺术家在文艺复兴时期是会在作品上署名的。事实上你也能说这正是问题的一部分...画作上会有艺术家的签名,而这曾被理解成文艺复兴的个人主义标志。如果一件艺术品上有Raphael的签名,我们会认为它是由这位伟大的艺术家Raphael本人独自完成的。

    但是是这样的,文艺复兴时期的意大利的艺术很多都是协同进行的。那时画家和雕塑家在一个工作室里工作。几乎就像一个由大师艺术家经营的小生意。为了处理他们收到的大量不同的委托,主要是要具体类型的艺术作品的订单,具体的项目,为了处理这些,大师艺术家通常会雇一些助手作为学徒。如果他们在进行一个大工程,巨大的画作或雕塑,或者如果对他们作品的需求很多的话,情况就更是如此了,比如Raphael。他画过一些大型的画作,他给梵蒂冈画过壁画。也收到过很多很多委托。他是绝不可能光靠自己一个人完成每个项目的每一部分的。

    这些助手也许是暂时或永久地为大师艺术家工作的,他们也许也有自己的专长。比如说,在Raphael的工作室,可以被称作“Raphael 公司”,其中一个助手专攻画动物。实际上他在Raphael的作品中画过很多动物。大师在一个作品上签名也许只是在声明这件作品达到了工作室的标准。

    不仅是画家,雕塑家也会一起合作;事实上,如果你是一位雕塑大师,你可能更需要助手,因为做雕塑花的时间比画画长。大师必须安排人去采大理石,诸如此类。可能合作性最强的是建筑。在那儿我们能看到一个真正的分工合作,木匠、泥瓦匠和没有技术的劳工仅仅是把材料搬来搬去,诸如此类。当然了,还有技术娴熟的工匠把大师的建筑设计变成现实。可以把它想成芭蕾,所有的舞者都在一起合作。他们之间有分工,每个人都有不同的角色。并且,为了把这件事整合起来,每个人需要知道其他人在做什么,并且协调他们的工作,掌握好时机。

    那么就建筑而言,几乎不可能弄清楚谁负责哪个具体的细节。是建筑大师、泥瓦匠还是助理泥瓦匠?也许甚至是主顾,这个付钱买下这件艺术品的客户。记住,那时候建筑设计师还没形成给他们的助手标准图纸来实施工作的习惯。指令都是口头给出的,不是书面的。所以我们没有那些文件能告诉我们建筑大师具体的计划是什么。唯一会有书面记录的时候是当建筑设计师本人不在的时候---也许这位设计师出差去了,必须把指令写下来然后寄到工作室去。

    另一件要思考的事:你们认为这种方法会对创新产生什么影响?我是说,因为受雇的工匠是由其他工匠训练的,所以他们往往被训练成使用传统的风格和技术。那么,如果你是一个建筑大师,而你已经发展出了自己的风格---假设你要求在你设计的建筑中加入特定的细节。假设这个细节与众不同,而且故意设计得和现有的传统,现有的风格不一样。受雇的工匠很有可能在执行这个设计时,不是按照拟好的设计来施工,而是很可能会坚持用他们熟悉的更传统的风格。必须非常紧密地监督工人才能防止这种事情发生。

    否则,通常会出现的情况的是,设计师的风格和创意会悄然消失。

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  • 本题对应音频:
    3 感谢 不懂
    音频1
    解析

    题型分类:主旨题

    音频定位:But this task becomes particularly difficult when we’re dealing with works produced in Italy during the Renaissance—the sixteenth, seventeenth centuries.

    选项分析:教授一上来说我们艺术史学家们最基本的任务之一就是确定艺术作品的作者,但是文艺复兴时期的作品很难确定作者,接下来就展开说了文艺复兴时期的艺术作品们是怎样被创作出来的,来回答这个问题,选C。

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