Official 40 Set 2

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A Formal Analysis of Art

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What point does the professor make about the writing of a formal analysis in art history?
  • A. Its objective is to identify common features of several works of art.

  • B. Its most important part is the explanation of an artwork’s significance.

  • C. Several styles of writing a formal analysis are used by art historians.

  • D. A particular approach is required to present information about an artwork.

显示答案 正确答案: D

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Last class I passed out your assignment for your first paper, and today I want to spend some time going over it.Mm...­most people never take any art history until they get to college, so many of you have probably never written an art history paper before.

    I gave you a list of appropriate works of art for you to write about.So your next step in this process needs to be to go look at the work you've selected as your topic.And bring a pencil and a notepad with you, because I don't mean you should just drop by at the museum and glance at it so you can say you've seen it in real life.You need to go and sit in front of the work and really look at it carefully and slowly.And keep careful notes about what you see. you'll need them for the kind of art history paper you're going to be writing, it's what we call a formal analysis.

    A formal analysis of a work of art, any kind of art, is based on its formal qualities, which means qualities related to the form. things like color…texture…line…shapes…proportion...and composition.Probably the closest thing to a formal analysis you might have written is for an English class.If you've say­ written an analysis of a poem, you've used the same skills. you've given an analysis of the poem by describing and analyzing its form and meter.A formal analysis paper in art history is very similar.

    Now, before you begin writing your formal analysis, you'll want to start with a summary of the overall appearance of the work, a brief description of what you see.Are there figures---people?What are they doing? Or is it a landscape... or an abstract representation of something?Tell what the subject is, and what aspects are emphasized in the painting.This will give your reader an overview of what the work looks like before you analyze it.

    The next part of your paper—the actual formal analysis—will be the longest and most important section of your paper, where you describe and analyze individual design elements.For this portion of the paper, you're going to rely on the notes you took at the museum, because you should be able to describe in detail the design elements the artist uses, and how they are used.For example, does the artist use harsh lines or soft lines? are the colors bright or muted?Focus on the design elements that you feel are most strongly represented in that particular work of art.And if you don't know where to begin, take note of where your eye goes first.Then describe things in the order in which your eye moves around the work.This will help you understand how one part relates to another, the interaction between the different parts of the work.OK, this kind of analysis should occur throughout the main portion of the paper.

    In the last section of your paper, and this goes beyond formal analysis, you comment on the significance of what you have seen. What details of the work convey meaning?Some significant details will not be apparent to you right away, but if you look long enough, you realize how important they are for your interpretation of the work.Many years ago, I was writing a formal analysis of a painting of a little boy.In the painting, a little boy was standing in his nursery, and he was holding a toy bird in his hand, and there were more toys around him in the background of the painting.Because of the bird he was holding, I assumed at first that the painting was about the innocence of children.But as I looked at the painting longer, I realized that the boy's eyes looked sad even though there was no discernable expression on his face.And then it dawned on me that, even though he was surrounded by toys, he was all alone in his nursery.The boy's eyes were a significant detail in the painting, that I didn't notice at first.

  • 旁白:请听艺术史课上的部分内容。

    教授:上一节课我把你们第一篇论文的作业都发下去了,今天我想花点时间再说一下。大部分人在进入大学之前从来没学过艺术史,所以你们中很多人可能以前从来没有写过一篇艺术史的论文。

    我给你们列了一些适合你们写的艺术作品。所以你们在这个过程中的下一步就是去看看你们选来作为主题的作品。并且要带着一支铅笔和一个笔记本去,因为我的意思不是你们应该只是顺路去一趟博物馆然后看一眼,这样就说你们已经亲眼看过它了。你们需要去坐在这个作品前,慢慢地仔细地看看它。并且把你们看到的认真地用笔记下来,你们在写这种艺术史论文的时候会需要这些笔记的,我们把这叫做形式分析。

    对一个艺术作品,任何类型的艺术的形式分析都是以它的形式质量为基础的,也就是与形式相关的质量,像色彩、纹理、线条、形状、比例和构图这样的东西。可能你们写过的和形式分析最相近的东西就是在英语课上了。假设,如果你们写过诗歌分析的话,你们使用的是同样的技巧,通过描述和分析诗歌的形式和韵律来对它作出分析。艺术史的形式分析论文和这非常相似。

    现在,在你们开始写形式分析之前,你们要先总结一下作品的整体外观,简要地描述一下你们看到的。是人物形象、人?他们在做什么?还是一个风景画...或者对某个事物的抽象描绘。描述一下作品的主题是什么,以及画作中强调了哪方面的内容。这会在你开始分析之前,让你的读者对这个作品的样子有一个大致的了解。

    你们论文的下一个部分,也就是真正的形式分析,会是论文中最长也是最重要的章节,你们要在这个部分描述并分析单独的设计元素。在论文的这个部分,你们就要依靠你们在博物馆做的笔记了,因为你们应该能够具体描述这个画家使用的设计元素以及它们是如何应用的。举个例子来说,这个画家使用的是硬朗的线条还是柔和的线条?色彩是鲜亮的还是柔和的?集中说明你们在那幅艺术作品中感觉最强烈的那些设计元素。如果你们不知道从哪下手的话,留意一下你们最先把目光投向的地方。然后按照你们的目光在这件作品上流转的顺序来进行描述。这会帮助你们理解一个部分是如何与另一个部分相联系的,以及这个作品的不同部分之间的相互作用。懂了吗?这种分析应该贯穿论文的主要部分。

    在论文的最后一部分就要超出形式分析了,你们要就你们看到的内容的重要性以及作品中哪些细节传达了意义发表自己的看法。一些重要的细节不会立马浮现在你们眼前,但是如果你们看的时间足够长,就会意识到这些细节对你们对这个作品的解读来说有多么重要。很多年前,我在写一篇画着一个小男孩的画作的形式分析。在那幅画里,一个小男孩正站在他的儿童室里,手里拿着一个玩具鸟,在画的背景里,他身边还有更多的玩具。由于他手里拿着的这只鸟,我起初以为这幅画是关于儿童的天真的。但是随着我看这幅画的时间越来越长,我意识到这个男孩的眼睛看起来很悲伤,虽然他的脸上没有可辨认的表情。然后我突然醒悟,即使他身边满是玩具,但他孤单一人在儿童室里。这个男孩的眼睛是这幅画里的一个至关重要的细节,是我起先没有注意到的。

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  • 本题对应音频:
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    音频1
    解析

    题型分类:细节题

    题干分析:根据the writing of a formal analysis定位

    音频定位:

    A formal analysis of a work of art, any kind of art, is based on its formal qualities, which means qualities related to the form—things like color… texture… line… shapes… proportion… and composition.

    选项分析:

    教授在开篇就对formal analysis进行了介绍,它是用一种特殊的方式用来呈现一件艺术品的信息,比如需要基于它的一些属性,如颜色,质地,线条,形状,比例,组成等等。

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