Official 39 Set 3

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
置顶

Community-Determined Film

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What are the speakers mainly discussing?
  • A. The effects of ethnographic films on the communities being studied

  • B. The process of making a community-determined film

  • C. The topics typically discussed in community-determined films

  • D. The efforts of filmmakers to record in their own communities

显示答案 正确答案: B

我的笔记 编辑笔记

/
  • 原文
  • 译文
  • 查看听力原文

    关闭显示原文

    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an anthropology class. The professor is discussing ethnography.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Since ethnography is all about the descriptive study of an individual culture, film has proved to have great value as a tool for anthropologists in their research.Let's look at a particularly effective approach to ethnographic filmmaking, which was developed in the 1970s.This particular style of ethnographic filmmaking is called the community-determined approach.

    The intent of the community-determined approach is to achieve a kind of, um, shared authorship.See, in this approach, the goals of the project and how the information will be used are discussed ahead of time,and so a culture...a community is not just the focus of the film,they are, actually, equal participants in the whole ethnographic process.In this way the film revolves around the actual values and concerns of the individuals in the community, and it honors an individual's ethical right to control how he or she is presented in the media.Several of these films were made in Alaskan communities in the 1970s.

    MALE STUDENT:So, how does it work, you know, the community-determined part?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Well, it takes a lot of preparation.First, way before filming begins, the filmmakers visit the community and meet with the village council,who are the decision makers of the community.A film, if available, is shown to the village council, so that they get an idea of the experience of another community.After the meeting, the filmmakers leave and the village council is given all the time they need to think about what was discussed.Later, if the village council members are interested, they send a letter or call.

    MALE STUDENT:There's no follow-up meeting?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Not unless they want one.See, this helps remove any pressure to say yes-the social pressure from the filmmaker's presence.

    MALE STUDENT:So if they agree, then what?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Then the filmmakers start living in the community.See, another major point in the community determined approach...It's very important that the filmmakers plan to stay in the community for an extended period of time.Not weeks, but months...And, really, there are several reasons for this:Any ideas?

    FEMALE STUDENT:The filmmakers could get a more realistic sense of the pace of life in that community.Uh, its daily rhythm.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Correct. And it allows the filmmakers to shed some of their assumptions, so that they better interpret what they see.

    FEMALE STUDENT:I bet it also takes the mystery out of the filmmaking process-you know, everyone has time to get used to the filmmakers and their equipment.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Exactly! Trust is established and relationships are built first.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Wow, this seems like a long process. It must cost a fortune.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:It does. Even with a small film crew, any project as involved as this is bound to.

    FEMALE STUDENT:OK, so who decides what goes into the film?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Well, such decisions are made by general consensus within the community.So, for instance, the community, not the filmmakers, decide who is to be interviewed for the films.Control of the interview is in the interviewee's hands.If the person being interviewed says to stop at any time, the recording stops.He or she states where they wish to be filmed,and when and what topic they wish to speak about.The community members review the footage both midway and at the end of the filming, and if they want any scene deleted, it gets removed.That's the level of respect ... and regard for the interviewee's preferences, and those of the community in general.

    MALE STUDENT:So, then...what language is everything filmed in?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Excellent question! Language is culture, isn't it?So the native language, rather than a dubbed voice-over in the filmmaker's language,is the primary language of the film.This way, a speaker's emotions and manner of expression really come through,even if we don't know their language.Subtitles are placed, in a secondary position, at the bottom of the screen.MALE STUDENT:[a little disappointed] And the subtitles probably give only the gist of what's actually being said...

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Yeah. A word-for-word translation could become too complicated...or it'd go by too fast on the screen.

  • 旁白:请听一段人类学讲座的节选片段。这节课的教授正在谈论人种学。

    教授:因为人种学是关于对一个单一文化的描述性研究,电影在研究中就成为了很有价值的一种工具。让我们看看一种人种学电影制作的特别的有效手段,这种手段在20世纪70年代被研制出来。这种特别的人种学电影制作的风格被称为社区决定的办法。

    这种社区决定的方法是为了达成一种群体创作的意图。来看看……通过这种办法,大家会提前讨论这个项目的目标以及如何使用这些信息,所以一个单一的文化,嗯……一个社区并不是电影的中心,每一个单一的文化和群体实际上在整个人类学过程中都是起到平等参与者的作用。以这种方式,电影以社区群众的真实价值观和想法为中心,并且电影制作很尊重一个人道德上的权利,他或她可以决定自己如何出现在电影里。在20世纪70年代,在阿拉斯加社区拍摄了几部这样的电影。

    学生:那这是怎么实现的呢,就是社区决定的部分?

    教授:嗯,这就需要很多的准备过程了。首先,在电影开始之前,电影制作者要去拜访社区,和村民委员会碰头,这些人是社区做决策的人。如果在拍摄之前可以先给村民看一部在别处拍摄的类似影片的话,他们就可以了解一下别的社区经历了什么。在开会之后,电影制作者离开,给村民委员会充足的时间来考虑刚才谈论的所有事宜。然后,如果村民委员会成员感兴趣的话,他们可以给电影制作人写信或者打电话。

    学生:所以没有紧接着的会议吗?

    教授:没有,除非村民还想开。你看,这就减轻了村民决策的社会压力,这种社会压力来自电影制作者的在场,他们就更容易同意。

    学生:所以如果他们同意的话,然后会发生什么呢?

    教授:接下来电影制作团队会进驻社区。你看,这种社区决定的方法中,另一个重要的点是…这是很重要的,电影制作团队要待在社区里很长时间。不是几周,是几个月,而且,这样做是有几个原因的:有人知道吗?

    学生:电影制作团队可以对于村子里的生活节奏有更加真实的感知?啊,它的日常的生活节律?

    教授:对的,而且这可以让电影制作团队摆脱他们的一些既定假设,有助于他们更好地阐释他们所看到的。

    学生:我敢说,这也使得电影制作过程变得不那么神秘了,你看,所有人都有时间去熟悉电影制作团队和他们的设备。

    教授:很准确,这样信任就被建立了,首先建立了良好关系。

    学生:哇,这看起来像是一个长长的过程。肯定很花钱。

    教授:是很花钱的。即使是制作团队人很少,只做必须做的项目。

    学生:好吧,所以谁来决定哪些人入镜呢?

    教授:这种事情是由社区共同决定的。所以,举个例子,是社区民众而不是电影制作者,来决定谁会在电影中被采访。采访的主导权在被采访者手里。如果正在被采访的人在任何时候说要停下,我们录像就停下。他或她可以说出他们想在哪里被拍摄,何时被拍摄,想聊聊什么话题。社区民众在电影拍摄过程中以及最后都可以看影片,如果他们想剪掉哪个镜头,这个镜头就被剪掉了。这就是我们对于被采访者的喜好所给予的尊重的程度,这种尊重也是给整个社区的。

    学生:所以用什么语言拍摄呢?

    教授:很好的问题!语言就是文化,不是吗?所以当地语言而不是来自电影制作者的语言,才是这部电影的主要语言。以这种方式,被采访村民的感情和表达方式才能真正被表达出来,即使我们并不懂他们的语言。我们会在影片底部次要位置上,加上字幕的。学生:而且字幕大约只能给出他们所说的内容的大意。

    教授:是的,逐字翻译会变得太过于复杂,而且字幕会在屏幕上过得很快。

  • 官方解析
  • 网友贡献解析
  • 本题对应音频:
    1 感谢 不懂
    音频1
    解析

    题型分类:主旨题

    音频定位:

    Let’s look at a particularly effective approach to ethnographic filmmaking, which was developed in the 1970s. This particular style of ethnographic filmmaking is called the community-determined approach.

    选项分析:

    开头明确表明讲座主旨:民族生态学电影制作的介绍,基于种族群落的路径

    标签

题目讨论

如果对题目有疑问,欢迎来提出你的问题,热心的小伙伴会帮你解答。

如何吃透这篇文章?

Community-Determined Film

0人精听过

预计练习时间:15min44s

马上精听本文

最新提问