Official 42 Set 2

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Greek and Roman Statues

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Why does the professor mention statues created by Renaissance artists in fifteenth-century Europe?
  • A. To emphasize the importance of color in Renaissance works of art

  • B. To help explain the method used to determine the age of a statue

  • C. To point out the origin of the belief that ancient marble statues were monochrome

  • D. To point out that Renaissance artists used other materials besides marble to create statues

显示答案 正确答案: C

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:I'm sure you've all been to a museum where you've seen beautiful white marble statues sculpted by the Greeks and Romans... or at least that you've seen photos of such statues, right?We have come to expect these classical Greek and Roman statues to be monochrome-just one color...white skin, white hair, white eyes, white everything-the natural color of the marble they're carved from.

    Now, the ideal of plain, white sculpture goes back to fifteenth-century Europe, when Renaissance artists rediscovered ancient Greek and Roman culture.They were inspired by sculptures that appeared monochrome, so they created white marble statues.The impact of these Renaissance statues, such as Michelangelo's David, gave rise to new standards for sculpture, standards that emphasized form rather than color.

    But what if many of those ancient statues were originally polychrome-colored from head to toe?Early in the nineteenth century, archaeologists found traces of paint on ancient sculptures.And since then, classical art historians have begun to realize that Greek and Roman marble sculptures were originally colored.Even if an ancient marble statue doesn't have any visible traces of paint, that does not mean it was originally monochrome.In many cases, the pigment would have simply deteriorated—ancient artists used mineral-based paints with organic binding media that would've disintegrated on its own over time.In other cases, the pigment may have been weathered away while exposed to the elements... or someone may have rigorously cleaned the statues and unknowingly removed the last traces of pigment.

    So...the fact is we do have evidence of polychrome sculptures from Greece and Rome from the seventh century B.C.E. all the way through at least the third or fourth century C.E.It's now generally accepted that most—maybe even all—marble sculptures from that time period received some kind of surface treatment like the application of pigments, colored stones, or metals that would've modified their color.

    So do we interpret a statue differently if we know it had originally been polychrome?I feel strongly when it comes to this.A marble sculpture that had been colored has another layer of meaning that was meant to affect the viewer.As art historians, we must try to interpret the intentions of the artists—what were the artists trying to achieve?Certain features of the sculpture were highlighted through color, were made to stand out....In other words, they caused the viewer to focus on certain features.And certain colors represented certain things to the ancient artists and cultures: a color might symbolize heroism, divinity, or youth.

    One example to consider is the statue of Roman Emperor Augustus.

    This particular statue of Augustus that I'm referring to was discovered just outside of Rome in 1863, and was in terrific condition.It's about two meters tall-just larger than life-size.It was made from an expensive, high-quality type of marble, and was obviously carved by an expert.

    Now... it still had visible traces of color on the hair, eyes, and its clothing and armor.The paints have been very carefully studied, and it turns out that the colors weren't just from any pigments—they were from expensive pigments.The use of these pigments showed the importance of Augustus and that he should be honored.

    And let's consider the extensive traces of a red pigment that were found on the statue's cloak.The cloak's a special garment that was traditionally worn by an emperor on the battlefield, and in real life was a red color which, to the Romans, signified the emperor's authority—military and political authority.

    OK...I won't point out any further details about the colors on the Augustus statue, because you can already begin to see that there was cultural importance associated with the colors—symbolism which should help us understand the statue better.

    There are many, many more sculptures that have traces of pigments left on them, and we have the technology these days to be able to carry out effective studies of these pigments.There's a lot of work to be done. But it needs to be done fast.Like I said before, these pigments deteriorate rapidly.So we really need to do the research before the traces are gone, so that we can increase our understanding of ancient polychrome sculptures and the cultures which created them.

  • 旁白:请听艺术史课上的部分内容。

    教授:我相信你们都去过博物馆,都在那儿看见过由希腊人和罗马人雕刻的美丽的白色大理石雕塑,或者至少看见过那些雕塑的照片,对吗?我们往往认为这些经典的希腊罗马雕塑是单色的,只有一种颜色,白色的皮肤、白色的头发、白色的眼睛,所有的东西都是白色的,都是它们的原材料大理石的天然颜色。

    这种简单白色雕塑的想法可以追溯到15世纪的欧洲,那时文艺复兴艺术家们重新发现了古希腊罗马文化。他们受到了那些看起来只有单色的雕塑的启发,于是他们创作出了白色的大理石雕塑。这些文艺复兴时期的雕塑,比如米开朗琪罗的大卫雕像的影响带来了雕塑的新标准,这些标准强调的是形式而不是颜色。

    但是万一这些古代的雕塑中很多原本都是多色的呢?万一它们从头到脚都上了色呢?在19世纪早期,考古学家在古代雕塑上发现了颜料的痕迹。自那以后,经典艺术史学家就开始意识到,希腊罗马大理石雕塑原本是上了色的。即使一个古代大理石雕塑没有任何可见的颜料痕迹,也不能说明它原本就是单色的。在很多情况下,颜料只是磨损了—古代艺术家使用的是以有机粘合剂和矿物质制成的颜料,这种颜料经过时间的推移会自行脱落。在其他情况下,暴露在自然环境中颜料也许风化了,或者某个人非常仔细地清理了雕塑,并且无意识地清除了颜料最后的一丝痕迹。

    所以事实是,我们确实有证据证明从公元前7世纪一直到至少公元3或4世纪的希腊罗马雕塑是有颜色的。现在人们已经普遍认为许多(甚至所有)那个时期的大理石雕塑都接受了某种表面处理,比如涂抹颜料、用有色的石头或金属改变雕塑的颜色。

    那么如果我们知道雕塑原本是有颜色的,那我们对它的解读会有所不同吗?我对此强烈赞同。一座上过色的雕塑有着注定会影响欣赏者的另一层意义。作为艺术史学家,我们必须努力解读艺术家的意图—这些艺术家想要获得什么?雕塑的某些特征通过颜色会得到突出。换句话说,它们会让欣赏者关注特定特征。而且特定的颜色对古代艺术家和文化来说代表了特定的事物:一种颜色也许代表了英雄主义、神或青春。

    可以参考的一个例子就是罗马皇帝Augustus的雕塑。

    我所指的这个特别的Augustus雕塑是1863年在罗马外发现的,而且保存状态特别好。有大概2米高,正好比真人的尺寸大一些。它是用一种昂贵的高品质的大理石雕刻而成的,而且显然是由一位专家操刀的。

    在这座雕塑的头发、眼睛、衣服和盔甲上仍有可见的颜色痕迹。人们仔细研究了这些颜料,结果发现这些颜色不是来自随随便便的颜料,而是非常昂贵的颜料。这些颜料的使用显示了Augustus的重要地位,以及他应该受到尊崇。

    我们来研究一下在这座雕塑的斗篷上发现的大量的红色颜料痕迹。斗篷是一件很特殊的服饰,传统上是战场上的君王穿的,在现实生活中它是红色的,对罗马人来说,这突出了皇帝的权威—军事和政治权威。

    好了,关于Augustus雕塑上的颜色我就不再赘述了,因为你们现在已经可以开始领会与颜色相关的文化重要性—象征主义是能够帮助我们更好地理解雕塑。

    还有很多很多雕塑上也有着残余的颜料痕迹,而且如今我们有了能够对这些颜料进行有效研究的技术。还有很多工作有待完成,但需要尽快完成。就像我之前说过的,这些颜料会快速脱落。所以我们真的需要在这些痕迹消失之前进行研究,以便于我们增加对古代多色雕塑,以及创作出它们的文化的理解。

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    解析

    题型分类:目的题
    题干分析:why mention目的题,根据Renaissance,15th century定位
    原文定位:Now, the ideal of plain, white sculpture goes back to fifteenth-century Europe, when Renaissance artists rediscovered ancient Greek and Roman culture. They were inspired by sculptures that appeared monochrome, so they created white marble statues. The impact of these Renaissance statues, such as Michelangelo's David, gave rise to new standards for sculpture, standards that emphasized form rather than color.
    选项分析:教授说雕塑单色的风格可以追溯到15世纪的欧洲,Renaissance艺术家们受单色雕塑启发,创作了白色大理石雕塑,强调形态,选项C正确。

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