Official 33 Set 6

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The Renaissance Gardens

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What does the professor mainly discuss?
  • A. The most popular features of ancient Roman gardens

  • B. The goals of Renaissance garden designers

  • C. The influence of Renaissance gardens on modern Italian gardens

  • D. Differences between ancient Greek gardens and ancient Roman gardens

显示答案 正确答案: B

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    NARRATOR: Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR: OK, we've been talking about the art and architecture of the Italian Renaissance … from around A.D. 1400 to around A.D. 1600 …Last class we had a look at some of the magnificent palaces and villas built during this time period …And just as class was ending, someone asked about the gardens associated with these palaces and villas …And so I'd like to say a few things about them before we move on …

    Now, when I say "gardens," I don't mean vegetable gardens,or simple flower gardens.These were lavishly constructed, finely detailed gardens that covered hundreds of acres,with exotic plants and ornamental statues.And they were just as much a symbol of their owner's social position as their palaces and villas were.[a quick review] Again, what was the inspiration for the Renaissance? [pause] Rebecca?

    FEMALE STUDENT: The Classical art and architecture of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

    MALE PROFESSOR: That's right. As we've said before,the main point of the Renaissance was to revive the genius of the ancient Greeks and Romans.Which is why designers of Renaissance gardens designed them as the ancient Romans would have designed them- or at least, as they imagined the ancient Romans would have designed them.

    FEMALE STUDENT: How did they know what ancient Roman gardens looked like?

    MALE PROFESSOR: Well, they didn't have any pictures, but they did have some very detailed descriptions of ancient Roman villas and their gardens that had been written by famous Roman authors who lived during the height of the Roman Empire.And at least three of those authors-one was a scholar, one was a poet, and one was a lawyer-were very authoritative, very reliable sources …Uh, and interestingly enough, there was another source, that didn't describe Classical gardens,but still became a great influence on Renaissance gardens.It was also written back during the height of the Roman Empire,by a mathematician known as Hero of Alexandria.

    Hero was a Greek …but he lived in Alexandria, Egypt, which was at the time part of the Roman Empire.Hero compiled descriptions and sketches of seventy-some clever little mechanical devices,most of which utilized compressed air to cause water- or in some cases, wine-to flow from one place to another … or sometimes to squirt, or to make some kind of noise …[sees hand raised] Yes, John.

    MALE STUDENT: Could you give an example?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, one of the devices was a sacrificial vessel-that was obviously designed for a temple, not for a garden.Anyway, if you dropped money into this vessel, water would flow out of it.Well, creative minds in the Renaissance realized that this little device could be nicely repurposed as a nifty little fountain.Designers of Renaissance gardens loved this sort of thing-they loved to incorporate novelties and tricks, things to amuse and impress guests.

    MALE STUDENT: And that was the purpose, to impress people?

    MALE PROFESSOR: Sure. As a nobleman or wealthy landowner, one purpose of having a fabulous villa with a fantastic garden was to impress people.It was a way of proving your social position.

    MALE STUDENT: Oh, OK. [requesting example] You also mentioned tricks?

    MALE PROFESSOR: Well, for example, some gardens had plaster or marble birds that sang when water flowed through them...Some fountains were designed to squirt people with water.

    MALE STUDENT: And these things were popular?

    MALE PROFESSOR: Yes, they may have been the most popular features of the gardens- I mean, flowers and statues can be nice to look at, but these things were a lot more fun.And the more clever the devices,the more famous the garden, and the greater prestige the landowner enjoyed.[sees hand raised] Yes, Rebecca.

    FEMALE STUDENT: What about mazes? I read that they were a major part of the Renaissance gardens.

    MALE PROFESSOR: Oh yes, they certainly were. Mazes-or labyrinths, as they're also called-were very common in Renaissance gardens.How that came to be, though, is a bit of a mystery.Mazes have a long history, going back to the ancient Egyptians, but they started appearing in gardens only during the Renaissance, or perhaps just a little bit prior to that.According to one source,what happened was,in the late 1400s, a highly respected expert published a book on architecture, and readers somehow mistakenly inferred from that book that ancient Romans had mazes in their gardens.So then, designers of Renaissance gardens, thinking they were following in the footsteps of the ancient Romans … well, guess what they did?

  • 旁白:听一段艺术史课程。

    教授:好了,我们已经讲过了意大利文艺复兴时期(约公元1400年至1600年)的艺术和建筑。上节课,我们看了一些这个时期人们建造的宏伟宫殿和别墅。上节课结束时,有人问到这些宫殿和别墅配套的花园。所以在我们继续往下讲之前,我想就此讲几句。

    当我说到花园,我并不是指蔬菜园或只有鲜花的花园。这些是造得极其精美,每个细节都非常精致的花园,覆盖了数百英亩的土地,里面有奇异的植物和装饰性的雕塑。它们也正是其园主社会地位的象征,正如宫殿和别墅一样。再问一次,文艺复兴的灵感来源是什么?丽贝卡。

    学生:古希腊和古罗马的经典艺术和建筑。

    正确。正如我们之前所说,文艺复兴主要是为了让古希腊和古罗马的辉煌艺术重现光彩。这就是为什么文艺复兴时期的花园设计师将花园设计成古罗马人会设计成的样子,或至少是他们想象中古罗马人会这么设计。

    学生:他们怎么知道古罗马的花园是什么样子?

    教授:他们没有图片。但他们有对古罗马别墅和花园非常详细的描述,这些是由罗马帝国鼎盛时期的著名罗马作家所写的。至少其中三位这样的作者,一位是学者,一位是诗人,还有一位是律师,都是非常权威可靠的信息来源。很有趣的是,有另一种信息来源,没有描述古典花园,但仍然对文艺复兴时期的花园产生了巨大影响。这是由一位数学家写的,称为“亚历山大港的希罗”,也是生活在罗马帝国鼎盛时期。

    希罗是希腊人,但他住在埃及的亚历山大港,那时候隶属罗马帝国。希罗编绘了对70多种精巧的小机械装置的描述和草图,大部分装置利用了加压空气来使水(一些情况下是酒)从一处流到另一处,有时甚至是喷射,或制造某种噪音。约翰?

    学生:你能举个例子吗?

    教授:其中一个装置是一种祭祀用的礼器,显然是为了寺庙而设计的,不是用于花园里的。不管怎样,如果你投钱到容器里,会有水从里面流出来。文艺复兴时期一些有创意的人们发现,这个小巧的装置能被改造成精美的小型喷泉。文艺复兴时期的花园设计师爱死这种设计了。他们非常喜欢融合不同的创意和小花招,来娱乐和打动客人们。

    学生:那就是全部目的了吗?打动人们?

    教授:当然。作为一个贵族或富有的地主,拥有极佳的别墅,还附有极美的花园,其中一个目的就是为了给人们留下深刻印象。这是证明社会地位的一种方式。

    学生:好吧。你还提到了花招?

    教授:举个例子,一些花园里有石膏或大理石做的鸟,在水流过时会唱歌。有的喷泉被设计成向人们喷水。

    学生:这些东西都很流行?

    教授:对。这些很可能是花园中最流行的特征了,我是说,花朵和雕像当然给人以视觉享受,但这些东西有趣多了。而且装置越巧妙,花园就越著名,地主也就享有更多声望。丽贝卡?

    学生:那迷宫呢?我看到过,迷宫是文艺复兴时期花园的主要部分。

    教授:对。它们当然是!迷宫(他们是这么叫的)在文艺复兴时期的花园里非常常见。到底是怎么发展而来的,还是个谜。迷宫的历史非常悠久,追溯到古埃及时期,但迷宫在文艺复兴时期才开始出现在花园中,或可能稍微早些。根据某信息来源,发生的事情如下:在15世纪晚期,一位备受尊敬的专家出版了一本建筑方面的书。不知怎么的,读者从书中误得出古罗马人的花园里有迷宫的结论。接着,文艺复兴时期的花园设计师们以为他们跟随了古罗马人的脚步...猜猜他们到底做的是什么?

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  • 本题对应音频:
    3 感谢 不懂
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    题型分类:主旨题

    原文定位:

    Last class we had a look at some of the magnificent palaces and villas built during this time period … And just as class was ending, someone asked about the gardens associated with these palaces and villas … And so I’d like to say a few things about them before we move on …

    选项分析:

    上节课最后有人问到花园的事,所以(and so)我就来讲讲关于花园的东西吧。对应B

    其他项不是本文主要讨论的内容

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