Official 38 Set 2

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Tulip-Breaking Virus

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What does the professor mainly discuss?
  • A. Techniques for breeding unusual varieties of tulips in the Netherlands

  • B. New types of plants introduced to Europe through trade

  • C. The spread of plant diseases throughout seventeenth-century Europe

  • D. The impact of a plant virus in the Netherlands in the seventeenth century

显示答案 正确答案: D

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a botany class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:OK, let's move on... to bacteria and viruses that can infect plants.And let's start out with a virus that's rather common in various plants, but first became known in connection with tulips.This virus can cause a change in pigmentation that dramatically affects the color of the plant's leaves or flower petals.But since not all cells of the plant tissue are infected, the result tends to be color variation... with color intensified in one part of the flower petal and faded in another. This is called color breaking.And the virus that causes this in tulips is called the tulip breaking virus.

    The tulip breaking virus is now known to have detrimental effects on plants- they're weaker and sometimes reduced in size.But for centuries, people didn't have a clue about this virus.Not until the early 1900s was it known what caused the color breaking in tulips- what made the tulip plant produce flower petals so radically different, in color or in pattern, from what you would've expected.Tulip flowers with stripes or streaks, or feather or flame patterns on their petals- there's no doubt in my mind that these symptoms of this breaking virus affected human behavior too, indirectly- that they set off the famous tulip craze in the Netherlands. Let me explain.

    In the seventeenth century, the Netherlands was among the most important trading centers in all of Europe... with lots of rich merchants who wanted to showcase their wealth... for example, by displaying exotic tulips in their private gardens.Now, tulips are not native to the Netherlands. They originated in the mountains of central Asia and spread from Persia, present-day Iran, to the Turkish Ottoman Empire, and from there, eventually reached Europe.There's an explanation for the origin of the name "tulip" that kinda reflects this: apparently, it came from a Persian word for "turban"... you know, a cloth wound around the head... um, a style of headgear worn by men in that part of the world.Well, the Ottomans used a similar name for tulips after they acquired them from Persia.And then, in the late sixteenth century, a variation on that name found its way from what is now Turkey...to the Netherlands... along with the plant itself.

    OK. A tulip, of course, is typically grown from an underground bulb.And although, as it flowers, the old bulb shrivels to almost nothing, the plant produces another large bulb-and maybe two, three, four smaller ones-to take its place.And while tulips take up to seven years to bloom if you start from seeds, a large bulb can produce a flower the very next year- with the smaller bulbs it takes maybe a couple of years.And since these bulbs remain viable for quite a long time, even out of the ground, they can be stored-or transported long distances-without much of a problem... which helps explain the spread of tulip cultivation.

    At first, tulips were rare in the Netherlands, and only for the wealthy.But in the early seventeenth century, as more bulbs were produced there, you'd think the prices would come down.In fact, though, the popularity of some tulips increased tremendously-so demand soon far exceeded supply, and their prices skyrocketed.And the tulips most prized-for their uniqueness and beauty- were apparently the ones infected by this mysterious virus.At the time, nobody was really able to breed tulips like these. Color breaking happened in just two or three out of a hundred bulbs, and seemingly just by chance.And since you didn't really know, when you bought a bulb, if the colors would break... well, Dutch speculators invested hand over fist... and drove prices sky-high.Some bulbs, even while still in the ground, were sold for as much as you would pay for a house at the time.But the huge speculative bubble created by this tulip craze eventually collapsed, and when the prices fell, that wiped out a lot of fortunes almost overnight.

    Later on, tulip breeders learned to duplicate color breaking in healthy, uninfected plants.So the spectacular-looking tulips so common today are the result not of chance viral infections but of carefully controlled breeding.

  • 旁白:请听一段植物学讲座的节选片段。

    教授:好的。我们继续向下讲,来看看可以感染植物的细菌和病毒。我们从一种在多种植物身上都很常见的病毒开始,这种病毒一开始是因为它们和郁金香的联系而出名的。这种病毒可以导致色素的变化,从而极大地影响郁金香的叶子和花瓣的颜色。但是因为并不是全部组织都会被感染,所以结果就变成了各种各样不同的颜色。花瓣某个地方的颜色会很浓郁,而另一个地方的则会变淡,这就叫做颜色裂变。导致郁金香出现这种裂变的病毒就叫做郁金香颜色裂变病毒。

    我们现在知道郁金香颜色裂变病毒对于植物有不好的作用。它们会使得植物变得虚弱,有的时候还会导致植物的体积缩小。但是几个世纪以来,人们对于这种病毒并没有什么了解。直到19世纪早期,人们才知道,什么会导致郁金香颜色出现裂变,会让郁金香的花瓣产生颜色和图案出乎人们预料的变异。郁金香花瓣会带有线状、条状、羽毛状或者烟状的图案,在我的脑海里毫无疑问这些病毒所带来的症状间接地影响到了人类的行为—它们引发了荷兰著名的郁金香狂热浪潮。让我来解释一下。

    在十七世纪,荷兰是欧洲最重要的贸易中心,有很多富裕的商人,这些商人想炫耀自己的财富,例如,通过在他们私人花园里种植异国的郁金香。郁金香并不是荷兰土生土长的花朵。它们发源于中亚的山脉,从波斯、也就是现在的伊朗传播过来,一直传播到土耳其帝国,从那里最终传到了荷兰。郁金香获得其名字的过程在一定程度上反映了这个传播的过程。显然,这个名字来源于一个波斯语的单词turban,你知道,这个词的意思是一条围绕脑袋的布条。嗯,一种帽子,那个地区的男人所带的帽子。土耳其帝国的人们在从波斯得到郁金香以后,用了和turban相似的名字来称呼它。然后,在16世纪晚期,这个名字出现了改变,这个改变从现在的土耳其地区随着郁金香本身的传播传到了荷兰。

    当然,一株郁金香一般是从地下的球茎里长出来的。尽管当花开的时候,地下的球茎就枯萎得不剩下什么了,地上的郁金香还可以结出新的球茎来代替旧的。如果是从种子开始,则需要七年的时间才能养出开花的郁金香。一个大的球茎可以第二年就开花,小的球茎的话则可能需要几年才开花。因为这种球茎在很长时间都是可以开花的,即使没有被种在土里,它们也可以被储存或者运输很长距离,这些都没有什么问题...这就解释了郁金香种植的扩散。

    最初,郁金香在荷兰很稀少,只代表着财富。但是在17世纪早期,随着越来越多的郁金香球茎被生产出来,你会觉得郁金香价格要下降了。实际上,郁金香的人气突然极速高涨了起来。所以需求量飞速超过了供应量,郁金香的价格一飞冲天。而且,郁金香大多数是根据其被这种神秘病毒感染而出现颜色变异的独特性和美丽程度而定价的。在那个时候,没有人有能力人工培育这样的郁金香。在一百多球茎里,发生颜色裂变的只有两三个,这看起来就像是偶然出现的。因为你们并不能知道你是否会买到颜色发生变异的郁金香,荷兰的投资者就迅速地争相投资郁金香,把价格炒的巨高。一些球茎,甚至在还埋在地下的时候,就可以卖到当时一座房子的价格。但是这种郁金香狂热所产生的巨大的投机泡沫最终还是破灭了。郁金香价格迅速下跌,一夜之间抹去了大量的财富。

    后来,郁金香的养育者学会了怎么在健康、没有感染病毒的郁金香上培育裂变的颜色。所以我们今天很容易看到的壮观郁金香并不是偶然病毒感染的结果,而是仔细控制下人工培育的结果。

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    音频定位:

    Professor: Okay. Let's move on, to bacteria and viruses that can infect plants. And let's start out with a virus that's rather common in various plants but first became known in connection with tulips.This virus can cause a change in pigmentation that dramatically affects the color of the plant's leaves or flower petals.But since not all cells of the plant tissue are infected, the result tends to be color variation... with color intensified in one part of the flower petal and faded in another. This is called color breaking.And the virus that causes this in tulips is called the tulip breaking virus.

    选项分析:

    okay let’s move on点明了教授接下来要讲的东西:一种在各种植物里很平常的、但是因为它和郁金香的联系而出名的病毒之后讲到了这种病毒对荷兰的大规模影响
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