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Cape Cod House

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What aspect of architecture in the United States is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. The differences between rural and urban styles of housing

  • B. The reasons for popularity of a particular type of house

  • C. The various styles of houses that are popular in New England

  • D. The decorative details that are typical of houses built in New England

显示答案 正确答案: B

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an Architecture Class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Today, we are taking a little detour from the grand styles of public architecture we've been studying to look at residential architectures in the United States.Since this is something we can all identify with, I think it will help us see the relationship between the function of a structure and its style or form.This has been an ongoing theme in our discussions, and we will be getting back to it in just a moment.But before we get started, I want you to take a moment to think: does anyone know what the single most popular style for a house in the United States is today? Bob?

    MALE STUDENT:I bet it is the ranch-style house.

    Well, in this area, probably. But are we typical? Yes, Sue.

    How about the kind of house my grandparents live in? They call it a Cape Cod.

    That's the one.Here is a drawing of what we consider of a classic Cape Cod house.These days, you see this style all over the United States.But it first showed up in U.S. northeast, in the New England region, around the late 1600s.For those of you who don't know the northeast coastal region, Cape Cod is a peninsula, a narrow strip of land that jets out into the Atlantic.And so many houses in this particular style were built on Cape Cod, that the name of the place became the name of the style.Now why did the Cape Cod style house become so popular in the northeast?Well, one reason is that it's a great example of form following function.We've talked about this design principle a lot about form following function.And what did we say it meant?Someone give me an application of this principle.What did this concept that form should follow function?How would it be applied to housing design?

    Well, if it means the design of the building, it should be based on the needs of people who use it.Then, well, the architect has to be very practical to think about the people who’ll actually be living in the house or working in the office building, whatever.So for the architect, it's all about users not about showing off how creative you can be.

    Good, of course, for a Cape Cod house, it might be even more accurate to say that form also follows climate.Who knows what the climate's like on Cape Cod?

    Cold in the winter...

    And whenever I visit my grandparents, it's really wet.It's usually either raining or snowing or foggy and windy, too.I guess because it's so exposed to the ocean?

    That's right. So take another look at this drawing, and you can imagine how this design might be particularly helpful in that kind of climate.Notice how the house sits fairly low to the ground.This relatively low compact structure helps the house withstand the strong winds blowing off the ocean.And look at the slope of the roof, the steep angle helps keep off all that rain and snow that accumulates in the winter.Another thing, Cape Cod houses usually face south to take advantage of the sun's warm through the windows.That's helpful in winter.Now what can you tell me about the chimney, about its location.

    Well, it's in the middle. Because, does that have something to do with heating the houses?I mean since the heat never has to travel very far.

    That mean you can heat the house more efficiently, right?

    Exactly, now see how the house has very little exterior decoration, that's also typical of early Cape Cod houses.The wind was one reason, nothing sticking out that might blow away in the harsh weather, but there was probably another reason, not related to the climate, more reflection of a rural New England society back then.You see, Cape Cod houses were not built in the big cities, where all the rich people lived back then.These were the modest dwellings the people who built them simply couldn't afford lots of expensive decorated details.But it was more than just matter of money.In these rural areas, people depended on each other for survival.Neighbors had to help and supported each other in the difficult environment, so you didn't want to appear to be showing off.You wanted to avoid anything that might set you apart from your neighbors, the same people you might need to help you someday.So all these help to create an attitude of conformity in the community, and you can see why a modest, a very plain style would become so widely imitated through out rural New England.

    It is plain, but you know it's nice looking.

    Good point, and in fact it's precisely that as aesthetic appeal, the... the purity,the nearly perfect proportions of the house... that's another reason for the Cape Cod's enduring popularity even in the places where the climate was so mild that its functional design doesn't matter.

  • 旁白:听一段关于建筑学的讲座。

    教授:今天,我们要从之前学习的公共建筑总体风格稍微离一点题,来看看美国的居民建筑。因为这是一个我们都熟悉的话题,我想这会帮助我们理解建筑的功能和风格形式之间的关系。这是我们一直进行讨论的题目,稍后我们会回到这个话题。但是在我们开始之前,我希望你们可以思考片刻:有人知道美国最流行的建筑风格是什么吗?Bob?

    学生:我猜是大农场住宅风格的房子。

    嗯,在这个区域,大概是。但我们是(美国住宅的)典型吗?是吗,苏?

    ⋯⋯好,请讲。我祖父母住的房子怎么样?他们叫它科徳角(Cape Cod)。

    就是它了。这是一个我们认为是典型科德角式住宅(Cape Cod house)的图片。在今天,我们看到全美国都有这种住宅。但它最先在美国东北部出现,在新英格兰地区,大约在十七世纪。对于你们中间不了解东北沿海地区的人,科德角是一个半岛,一个延伸到大西洋的窄条。很多这种风格的房子被建在科德角,所以地名成为了建筑的名称。为什么科徳角式房屋在东北部这么受欢迎?一个原因就是这是结构遵从功能的绝佳例子。我们曾经多次谈论过这种结构遵从功能的准则。当时我们说这是什么意思?谁给我举个例子说明,这个准则是如何生效的?结构遵从功能的概念究竟是什么?在房屋设计中是如何运用的?

    嗯,如果说的是房屋设计,它应该是基于人们的需求。然后,嗯,无论怎样,建筑师必须非常实际地考虑那些真正住在房子里或在办公楼里工作的人。对于设计师来说,用户是最重要的,而不是炫耀自己有多么有创造力。

    很好,对于科徳角式住宅,更准确地说,还考虑到了气候。追知道柯德角的气候?

    冬天很冷

    而且每次我去探望我祖父母,都很潮湿。那里不是下雨就是下雪就是雾蒙蒙的,还有风。我猜有可能是它(科徳角)太暴露在海洋的原因?

    没错。那再看一下这幅图,你就可以想象这种设计如何在这种天气中起作用。注意这座房屋有多接近地面。这种低矮结实的房屋结构有助于房屋承受海洋刮来的强风。再看看屋顶的斜度,陡峭的角度有使得雨水和雪不在房顶堆积。还有一件事,科徳角式房屋通常面向南,来借助太阳光透过窗子使屋子暖和。这在冬天很有帮助。现在,你能从烟囱的位置看出什么?

    嗯,它在中间。因为⋯⋯这跟加热房屋有关系吗?我的意思是,因为这样热气就不用穿过太长的距离。

    那意味着更有效地给房屋供暖,对吗?

    正是如此。看看这座房屋的外部装饰多么有限,这也是典型的科德角式房屋的特点。风是其中的理由之一,任何支出来的东西都可能被大风吹走。但还有其他原因,跟气候无关的,更关系到当时新英格兰乡村地区的状况。科徳角房屋并不是建在大城市里的,那儿是富人住的地方。这是一些经济拮据的人建的,他们没有足够的钱去点缀房屋。但这不仅仅关系到钱。在这些乡下地区,人们依赖对方而生存。在这种艰难的环境里,邻里之间互相帮助支持。所以你可能不想要太过炫耀。你想要竭尽所能不做任何有可能损坏你跟你邻居关系的事情,因为这些人有些一天会帮到你。所以所有人都想创造一种一致的、团结的态度,这样你就看到了一种朴素的、非常普普通通的房屋风格在新英格兰地区为什么被大量模仿。

    它很普通,可你知道,它看上去还不错。

    说得好。事实上,确切来说它富有美感,这种纯正得几乎比例完美的房子。这也是为什么科徳角房屋即便在气候温和,不需要考虑功能性的地方依然受欢迎。

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    题型分类:主旨题

    原文定位:Now why did the Cape Cod style house become so popular in the northeast?

    选项分析:

    本篇主旨提出得比较靠后,前面有大量的背景引入,需要集中力。Now why......是个标志词,提示主题,文章后续的内容即为这个问题的解答,B选项正确。 

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