Official 09 Set 5

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
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Desert Lakes

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Reasons that geologists study lake fossils in desert regions

  • B. A comparison of ancient and present-day lakes in desert environments

  • C. Geological evidence for the formation of ancient sand dunes

  • D. A hypothesis for how some ancient desert lakes formed

显示答案 正确答案: D

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a geology class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:So, continuing our discussion of desert lakes, now I want to focus on what's known as the "Empty Quarter".The "Empty Quarter" is a huge area of sand that covers about a quarter of the Arabian Peninsula.Today it's pretty desolate, barren and extremely hot.But there've been times in the past when monsoon rains soaked the Empty Quarter, and turned it from a desert into grassland that was dotted with lakes and home to various animals.There were actually two periods of rain and lake formation: the first one began about 37,000 years ago, and the second one dates from about 10,000 years ago.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Excuse me, Professor. But I'm confused.Why would lakes form in the desert? It's just sand, after all.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Good question. We know from modern-day desert lakes … like Lake Eyre [air] in South Australia … that under the right conditions, lakes do form in the desert.But the Empty Quarter lakes disappeared thousands of years ago.They left behind their beds, or basins, as [emphasize, slow] limestone formations that we can still see today.They look like low-lying, white or grey buttes … long, narrow hills with flat tops … barely a meter high.

    A recent study of some of the formations presents some new theories about the area's past.Keep in mind, though, that this study only looked at 19 formations … and about a thousand have been documented, so there’s a lot more work to be done.

    According to the study, two factors were important for lake formation in the Empty Quarter.First, the rains that fell there were torrential. So it would've been impossible for all the water to soak into the ground.Second, as you know, sand dunes contain other types of particles, besides sand, including clay and silt.Now, when the rain fell, water ran down the sides of the dunes, carrying clay and silt particles with it.And wherever these particles settled, they formed a pan … a layer that water couldn’t penetrate.Once this pan formed, further run-off collected, and formed a lake.

    Now, the older lakes … about half of the formations, the ones started forming 37000 years ago, the limestone formations we see … they're up to a kilometer long, but only a few meters wide, and they're scattered along the desert floor, in valleys between the dunes.So, the theory is, the lakes formed there on the desert floor, in these long narrow valleys.And we know, because of what we know about similar ancient desert lakes, we know that the lakes didn't last very long, from a few months to a few years on average.As for the more recent lakes, the ones from 10000 years ago, well, they seemed to have been smaller, and so may have dried up more quickly.

    Another difference, very important today for distinguishing between older lake beds and newer ones, is the location of the limestone formations.The more recent beds are high up in the dunes.

    Why these differences?Well, there are some ideas about that, and they have to do with the shapes of the sand dunes, when the lakes were formed.37000 years ago, the dunes were probably nicely rounded at the top, so the water just ran right down their sides to the desert floor.But there were thousands of years of wind between the two rainy periods, reshaping the dunes.So, during the second rainy period, the dunes were kind of chopped up at the top, full of hollows and ridges, and these hollows would've captured the rain right there on the top.

    Now, in the grassland of Lake Ecosystem, we'd expect to find fossils from a variety of animals, and numerous fossils have been found at least at these particular sites.But, where did these animals come from?Well, the theory that has been suggested is that they migrated in from nearby habitats where they were already living.Then as the lakes dried up, they died out.

    The study makes a couple of interesting points about the fossils, which I hope will be looked at in future studies.At older lake sites, their fossil remains from hippopotamuses, water buffalo, animals that spend much of their lives standing in water, and also, fossils of cattle.However, at the sites of the more recent lakes, there're only cattle fossils, additional evidence for geologists that these lakes were probably smaller, shallower, because cattle only use water for drinking.So they survive on much less.Interestingly, there are clams and snail shells, but, no fossils of fish.We're not sure why.Maybe there is a problem with the water.Maybe it was too salty.That's certainly true of other desert lakes.

  • 旁白:请听一段地理课上的演讲。

    教授:那么,我们继续讨论沙漠湖泊,现在我想主要说说“空白地区”。“空白地区”是一大块沙漠地带,覆盖了四分之一的阿拉伯半岛。如今那里很是荒凉,土地贫瘠,极其炎热。但在过去一段时间里,季风雨湿润了整片空白地区并将之从沙漠转变成绿地,其上湖泊星罗棋布,各种动物在此安家。事实上,这里有两个降雨和湖泊形成时期:第一次发生在37000年前,第二次可追朔到10000 年前。

    学生:不好意思,老师,打断一下。我有点不解,为什么沙漠里会有湖泊形成呢?再怎么说沙漠里都是沙啊。

    教授:问得好!我们从现代的沙漠湖泊中了解到,像澳大利亚南部的艾尔湖,就是在适当的沙漠条件下形成了的湖泊。但是几千年前空白地带的湖泊就消失了。这些湖泊遗留的河床或是盆地,是我们今天仍然可以看到的石灰岩层。他们看地来像低洼的,灰白相间,狭长而顶部平坦的山丘,几乎不到一米高。

    最近对某些岩层的研究中提出了关于该地区的过去形态的某些新理论。记住,这项研究只是针对十九种构造进行考察的,而将近一千种构造已经被记录在册,所以我们还有很多研究要做。

    根据此次研究,空白地带的湖泊形成有两个重要的因素。第一,该地区的降雨是倾盆而注的,所以,所有的雨水是不可能都渗入到地底下的。第二,你们知道,沙丘中含有其他种类的粒子,除了沙子之外,还包括黏土和泥沙。降雨的时候,雨水会沿着沙丘两边留下,带走黏土和泥沙颗粒。不管什么时候这些颗粒停留下来了,他们便会形成盆状凹地,这是一层不透水的盘层。盆状凹地一旦形成,进一步收集径流,从而形成湖泊。

    而年代更为久远的湖泊,大概占到一半的构造,它们于37000 年前就已经形成。我们所看到的石灰岩层高达一千米,而宽却只有几米。他们沿着沙漠地板和沙丘间山谷分布。所以,理论上说,湖泊是在沙漠的地面上形成的,在这些狭长的山谷中。而我们知道,正因为我们了解相类似的古代沙漠湖泊,我们才知道这些湖泊存在的时间不长,平均是几个月到几年时间。而对于比较近期才形成的湖泊,那些10000 年前形成的湖泊,嗯,他们似乎更为小,所以可能会更快干涸。

    另一个区别,一个今天我们要谈到的,区分年代久远和近期形成的湖泊沉积矿,就是石灰岩层的所在地。近期的沉积矿在沙丘中位置更高。

    为什么有这些不同呢?嗯,这里有一些说法,这些沉积矿跟沙丘的形状有关。在37000 年前湖泊形成的时候,沙丘的顶部很可能是圆状的,因此雨水就只是从两边顺势留下到沙漠地板上。而在两个雨季之间几千年来刮风不止啊,这就重新将沙丘塑形了。那么在第二次雨季期间,沙丘的顶部有点被分割开了,满是凹陷的空洞和隆起线,而这些洞就足以储存从顶部留下的雨水。

    如今,在湖泊生态系统的草地上,我们期望发现各种动物的化石,而至少在某些特定的地方我们已经发现了很多化石。但是,这些动物是从哪里来的呢?嗯,该理论一直以来说的就是动物从附近的栖息地迁徙而来。随着湖泊干涸,动物灭绝。

    此次研究中有几个有趣的点是关于化石的,我希望这些点在未来的研究中会被重视。在年代久远的湖泊遗址中,发现的化石是河马,水牛这些在水中长时间生活的生物,还有,牛的化石。然而,在较为近期形成的湖泊遗址中,却只发现了牛的化石,对于地理学家来说,这是另外的证据,证明湖泊很可能更小更浅,因为牛只拿水来饮用。所以它们用少很多的水就能存活。有趣的是,还有蛤蜊和蜗牛壳,但是没有鱼的化石。我们不确定为什么。也许是湖水的问题。也许湖水太咸了。其他的沙漠湖泊湖水确实如此。

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    解析

    题型分类:主旨题
    原文定位:Why would lakes form in the desert?
    选项分析:
    学生问Why would lakes form in the desert? 接下来教授说:good question然后就开始长篇解答了,主要内容是沙漠里的湖是怎么形成的,D选项正确。

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