Official 21 Set 6

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Alice Neel

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What aspect of Alice Neel's work does the class mainly discuss?
  • A. The ways that her artistic style developed over time

  • B. The influence of photography on her portraits

  • C. The style she used to portray her subjects

  • D. Criticisms of her approach to Realism and Expressionism

显示答案 正确答案: C

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Alright, uh... so today we're moving on to Alice Neel, N-E-E-L.Uh, Alice Neel painted portraits, um, she was born in Pennsylvania and she lived from 1900 to 1984.[confident, deliberate]And I guess you might say she experienced difficulties as an artist.She was in her 70s before she had her first major solo exhibition.

    Um, and this is due at least in part to, uh... er, because of photography.After photography became regarded as an art form, portrait painting became less prestigious, um, less respected as an art form and well... art photography kind of took its place.So you can imagine that a portrait artist would've had a hard time finding acceptance.

    Uh, but the real reason I want to look at Neel is that I really find her style, um, she had interesting ways of portraying people.She combined some elements of Realism... What's Realism. Alison?

    FEMALE STUDENT:It's like, painting something exactly how it is, so an artist would try to make it as accurate, um, and objective as possible.Painting stuff just how it appears on the surface.

    MALE PROFESSOR:OK, good. So, Neel combined Realism with... well, actually, with Expressionism.[asking, expecting an answer] And that is...[pause, then hinting] um, we-we just covered this...

    FEMALE STUDENT:[less confident]Um, it's into emotion, like artists are trying to, well, express themselves through the painting. Right?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yep, the artist is depicting subjective emotions-showing the inner reality as interpreted by the artist, rather than the outward form, so the image itself might be distorted or exaggerated in some way.The expression overrides objective, uh, representation.OK, so. Alice Neel combined these two uh, styles. Yes?

    FEMALE STUDENT:Um, how is that even possible? [doubtful, no upspeak]How can you portray something exactly as it is, and at the same time, distort it with emotions? I don't get it.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Alright, good question. It's actually a good lead-in to some of the techniques that Neel used-that she employed to bridge that contradiction.In a minute I'll show you some of her portraits, and I'll want you to notice a few things about them.First, Neel's use of bold color, alright?You'll see she uses color to convey emotion and feeling...Like, the subjects' clothing, for instance-it appears brighter than it really is.And the subjects, the people being portrayed- Neel paid special attention to faces... the way she paints the eyes, an-and how the faces are portrayed- these are quite realistic, like the realists' work.But another thing Neel did was use elongated, sort of stretchy figures.

    MALE STUDENT:But didn't a lot of Expressionist painters do that?So really you're saying that Neel's techniques were similar to what other artists were doing.What was it that she did that was, like, all her own?

    MALE PROFESSOR:OK, well, I think it has to do, partly, with the way she combined these techniques.So, for example those realistic faces and eyes but bright, distorted figures-it's a mix.You'll see that her portraits do reflect reality, um, the people that were actually sitting there.

    Realism was important in the sense that she wanted to show people as they really were- much like a photographer would.Uh, but Neel wasn't satisfied with photo-like realism.She went beyond that- and this is where Expressionism comes in.She believed in capturing the whole person-not just what was on the surface.That's where the Expressionist distortion is important, in an attempt to reveal the subjects' character or personality.

    But Neel's paintings are distinctive for her time in part because they are portraits.Remember I said that photography, and art photography, had largely taken the place of portraiture, to the extent that some critics had declared the genre of portraiture to be dead.But Neel felt that painting should reflect reality- [with humor]a real realist's stance, you could say- and to her, individuals- people-best reflect the reality of their time-of the age that they live in.So she painted portraits.

    An-and if you look at her work- we're talking in the vicinity of 3,000 paintings- if you look at them, it's like this gallery of the whole century... an enormous range of subjects- families, women, children, artists, people in poverty... these paintings really spanned class, age, and gender.It's like she transformed the genre- it's not just formal depictions of, uh,[slightly derogatory tone] presidents and ancestors anymore.

    But keep in mind that she was doing this when abstract art dominated the art scene.Representations of people weren't fashionable in the art world, and it wasn't until fairly late in the century that critics recognized the power of what she did.

  • 旁白:听下面一段艺术历史的课堂讲解。

    教授:好啦,今天我们来讲一下爱丽丝. 尼尔,N-E-E-L。爱丽丝尼尔是一位画肖像画的画家,她出生于宾夕法尼亚州,生于 1900 年,于 1984 年去世。我想你会说,作为一名画家,她是经历了艰难险阻。直到她 70 多岁的时候,她才有了一次自己的大型专属画展。

    呃, 这至少有一部分原因是归结于摄影的出现。在摄影作为一项艺术形式出现以后,肖像画就变得不那么盛行了,也不再那么受尊崇了,摄影有些取代了肖像画的位置。所以你们可以想象作为一名肖像画家,想受到关注一定是很难的。

    呃,真正我去关注尼尔的原因其实是她的绘画风格,呃,她描绘人的方式很有趣。她在画里面注入了一些现实主义元素。艾莉森,什么是现实主义?

    学生:就是按照事物的本身来创作,画家会尽量画的逼真、准确,呃,而且尽量的客观。就是表面上是什么样子就画成什么样子。

    教授:好的,不错。尼尔将现实主义呢,又融入了表现主义。这又是什么呢?我们其实刚讲过这个问题。

    学生:呃,就是注入情感,就像画家们试图通过作品来表现出他们自己一样,对吗?

    教授:是的。就是画家在描绘主观的情感,通过作品来表现出内在的真实而不是外在的形式,所以画出的形象可能会在某种程度上变形或者夸张化。表现主义就掩盖了客观的呈现。那么,爱丽丝尼尔就结合了这两种风格。有什么问题?

    学生:那怎么可能呢?怎么可能一边完全客观的作画,一边又带有感情的去使之变形呢?我不明白。

    教授:好的,问的好。你的问题可以作为引出尼尔技巧的开场白,她使用了一些技巧来消除这样的矛盾。等一下,我给你们展示几张她的作品,我希望你们能从中注意到一些东西。首先,尼尔用色很大胆,对吗?你会发现她使用颜色来抒发情感和感受。比如说画中人的衣服,就比实际上的颜色要鲜艳。画中的人物呢,尼尔更注重面部的勾画,她画眼睛的方式及对面部的勾画都是非常现实的, 和现实主义画家的作品一样。但是尼尔还运用了将人物拉长的这种绘画手段。

    学生:但不是很多表现主义画家都这样做嘛?所以你所谓的尼尔的技巧和其他画家的技巧其实是一样的啊。那么什么是她自己专属的风格的?

    教授:好的。我想是和她能将这些技巧在一定程度上结合使用有关系。比如那些现实的脸和眼睛,配上艳丽的扭曲的身体,这是一个混合体。你会发现她的肖像画的确反射出现实来,人们确实是坐在那里的。

    现实主义体现在重要的一点就是她想给人们展示人物真实的样子来,就像摄影师一样。但是尼尔并不满足于如照片般的现实主义。她有所创新,那么这就出现了表现主义。她坚信要捕捉到整个人物的特点,而不是表象的东西。这就体现了表现主义扭曲的重要性,试图显露出人物的性格及特点。

    但是尼尔的作品在那个时期之所以与众不同是因为它们都是肖像画。还记得我说摄影及摄影艺术很大程度上代替了肖像画的位置吧,以至于达到了某些评论家宣布肖像画流派将会销声匿迹声的程度。但是尼尔认为画画就是要反射现实,展示出一个现实主义者的立场,而对她来讲,人物是最能反映他们所处的时代的现实。所以她绘制肖像画。

    如果你们来看她的作品的话,那可是三千件左右的作品啊,当你们看她的作品的时候,就好像是整个世纪的艺术长廊,画中涉及了太多的人物,有家庭、女人、孩子、艺术家、穷人…这些作品跨越了阶级、年龄以及性别。就好像是她转变了这个流派,而不再是去绘制很正式的总统或者祖先的画像。

    但是要记住这一点,在尼尔的那个年代抽象艺术极具盛行。展示人物在艺术界里并不流行,而且直到上个世纪晚期,评论家们才意识到她所做的事情的重要性。

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    题型分类:主旨题

    音频定位:

    Uh, but the real reason I want to look at Neel is that I really find her style, um, she had interesting ways of portraying people. She combined some elements of Realism

    选项分析:

    听到but就要仔细听啦,教授说我还是想说说Neel,因为他看到Neel很有自己style啊然后开始讨论他的style是怎样的

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