Official 38 Set 3

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
置顶

Congruent and Incongruent Media

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. The advantages of congruent over incongruent media for advertising cars

  • B. The advantages of using magazines over television as an incongruent advertising medium

  • C. How incongruent media can be used for effective advertising

  • D. How advertising using only one type of media can increase brand awareness

显示答案 正确答案: C

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a business class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:[Keep pace on the faster side throughout] Last time, we talked about the design and production of advertisements.Today we'll be discussing how advertisers decide where to display their ads.This is critical to a successful marketing campaign, because it builds up the consumers' "brand awareness"- their knowledge of a product made by a particular manufacturer.And studies show that the more you're aware of a product, there's a greater chance you'll buy it.

    Now, most ads we see in the media-like in newspapers, television, or magazines- are placed where the product is matched with a medium of a similar "theme."Let's take, uh, the medium of magazines as an example.

    If you were to flip though, say, an automotive magazine, what kind of ads would you expect to find? Jack?

    MALE STUDENT:[Matter-of-factly; the answer is obvious] Ads for cars... car parts-tires, stuff like that...

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Good. When you have an ad for a certain product in media with a similar theme, we call that congruent media.

    Congruent simply means, "it fits"-it's what you'd expect. Congruent media placement is the most logical choice for marketing a product.First, it's obvious that people reading a car magazine are interested in cars.So if you place a car ad there, you know you're reaching the right audience.Also, research shows that when people read an ad in a congruent medium, afterwards they have pretty good recall of what was advertised.

    Now, there's another approach: that's placing ads in incongruent media.

    Incongruent media are the magazines, newspapers, TV spots, where the "theme" doesn't match the theme of the product.Even though it seems counterintuitive, research shows this also is an effective marketing strategy.One study tested this by placing car advertisements in a magazine that had an incongruent theme, and it found that this contributed to consumers' positive attitude toward the ad... and the car being advertised.

    MALE STUDENT:What kind of magazine was it?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:A cooking magazine.

    MALE STUDENT:[Slightly incredulous] Wow, that worked? I'd've imagined it'd be a distraction to see something like that, y'know, out of place.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Well, keep in mind that potential car buyers don't read only car magazines. Most have other interests.Many of them probably subscribe to other magazines... a news weekly, a financial publication, something related to a special interest or hobby...So what marketers have to do, then, is carefully research potential customers, and look for overlapping interests... which magazines overlap most with the interests of the car buyer?Then, when they do choose to place ads in incongruent media, they know they'll be effective.

    MALE STUDENT:[Understanding the point] ... OK....FEMALE PROFESSOR:Now this study suggests that, because the people reading a cooking magazine didn't expect to see a car ad, they actually paid more attention.And so, for example, when people who like reading about cars see a car ad in a car magazine, they might pass over it quickly, while here...MALE STUDENT:[Completing the thought]...they actually took more time to read the ad.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Right. People pay more attention- they process the information more carefully- when it appears in a medium with a different theme.This ultimately results in stronger brand awareness, which leads to a more favorable impression of that product overall. Jenny?

    FEMALE STUDENT:[Disbelieving] So, according to this study, basically, when I see an ad in an unexpected place, it'll make me want to buy the product?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Well, yes and no. The research shows that you'll probably remember that ad... and you're more likely to feel positive about that product.Now, whether you'll go out and buy it is another story.Of course, there are other factors at work here... you-you remember, those criteria we discussed last week....Anyway, this explains why most marketers today rely on a mix of congruent and incongruent media.

    But there are limits to how incongruent the media should be. You don't want a total mismatch.So, in a magazine aimed at new parents, you often see car advertisements- since parents buy and drive cars.But, there are different types of cars, right? For example, placing an ad here for a big, roomy van, which is popular with big families, would make sense.But a snappy little sports car with only two seats? Well, that would clearly be too much of a mismatch.

  • 旁白:请听一段商业讲座的节选片段。

    教授:上节课我们讲到了广告的设计和制作。今天我们要讨论的是广告制作人如何决定在哪里展现他们的广告。这对于成功的营销来说很关键,因为这可以帮助建立消费者的“品牌意识”—他们对于特定制造商生产的产品的知识。研究说明,你对于一款产品的了解越多,你会购买它的可能性越大。

    现在,我们在报纸、电视或杂志上看到的大多数广告,都是被放置在产品与类似“主题”的媒介相匹配的地方。举个例子……嗯……拿杂志这个媒介来说吧。

    如果你在翻一本,我想想,汽车杂志,你会期待在它上面看到什么广告吗?Jack?

    学生:我会期待看到汽车的广告,汽车部件啦,轮胎啦之类的东西。

    教授:很好。当你在相似主题的媒体上看到某个产品的广告时,我们把这种广告方式称为是相配媒介广告。

    一致性仅仅意味着,“它适合”——这是你所期望的。对于产品营销来说,在相配媒介上放置广告时最具有逻辑性的选择。首先,很明显,看汽车杂志的人对于汽车是感兴趣的。所以如果你在汽车杂志上放置汽车的广告,你就是在向正确的受众营销。同样,研究也发现当人们在相配媒介上看到一则广告的时候,他们稍后会对于广告内容作出很好的回忆。

    现在,还有另一种办法,那就是把广告放置在不相配的媒介上。

    不相配媒介就是那些和所呈现广告产品的主题不相配的杂志、报纸、电视节目。即使这看上去似乎是违背直觉的,研究表明这也是一个有效的营销策略。有一个验证了这个理论的实验,是通过把汽车广告放在不相配媒体上的,研究者发现这种做法会帮助消费者形成对于这个产品的积极态度,也就是对于正在做广告的车的积极态度。

    学生:那这是什么样的杂志呢?

    教授:美食杂志。

    学生:哇!真的有效吗?我本以为看到这样的东西会分散你的注意力,你知道的,不合时宜。

    教授:嗯,记住这件事,潜在的汽车消费者并不只是阅读汽车杂志。他们其中很多人有别的兴趣。他们中的很多人会订阅其他杂志,比如一周一次的新闻报纸,金融的出版物,或者什么有关于特殊兴趣或爱好的事情。所以营销者需要做的是仔细地研究潜在消费者,并且寻找重叠的兴趣,找出哪种杂志能覆盖汽车购买者的最多的兴趣领域。然后当营销者决定在不相配媒介上投放广告的时候,他们知道这会是有效的。

    学生:好的...教授:现在这个研究认为,因为阅读烹饪杂志的人并不会期待看到一个汽车的广告,但实际上他们会对这个广告投入更多关注。例如,让喜欢阅读汽车相关东西的人在汽车杂志上看到了汽车广告,他们也许就迅速翻过去了,但是……学生:(阅读不相配媒介上广告的)人们实际上花了更多的时间来阅读广告。

    教授:对的!他们的确花的注意力更多,他们会更小心的加工信息,当信息出现在不同主题的媒体上的时候。这就最终导致了强烈的品牌意识,而品牌意识会带来对于产品整体的更加好的印象。Jenny?

    学生:所以根据研究,基本上如果我在一个出乎意料的地方看到了一个广告,它就会导致我们去买这个产品?

    教授:这个观点有对有错。这个研究的意思是你也许会记住这个广告,而且你会对于产品有更正向的感觉。至于你到底会不会去买它,那就是另一回事了。当然了,有很多因素会影响人们最终是否购买一个产品。你们还记得我们上节课讨论过的标准吗?无论如何,这就解释了为什么大多数的营销者现在同时依赖相配的和不相配的媒体进行营销。

    但是媒体的不匹配程度是有限制的。不会有人想要一个完全的错配。所以在针对新组建的家庭的杂志上,你经常看到汽车的广告,因为做父母总是需要买车开车的。但是车是有很多种的,对吗?例如说,在这里放一个大型的流行于大家庭的卡车的广告,就是有意义的。但是如果是放一辆只有两个座位的时髦的跑车广告?那就是很大程度的错配了。

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    音频定位:

    Now, there's another approach, that's placing ads in incongruent media.

    选项分析:

    这篇文章铺垫特别长。开头一直讲一致的媒体广告是什么及其优势。听到another教授开始讲不一致媒体上的广告的作用。

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