Official 44 Set 1

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Way to Solve a Problem

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
Why does the student go to see the professor?
  • A. To get his opinion about why a project she recently completed had unexpected results

  • B. To discuss how a topic covered in class is similar to her group’s research topic

  • C. To ask him for suggestions to address a problem in her research

  • D. To discuss the professor’s concern about her group’s research project

显示答案 正确答案: D

我的笔记 编辑笔记

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    NARRATOR:Listen to a conversation between a student and her sociology professor.

    MALE PROFESSOR:I'm glad you got my message and were able to make it... but where are the other members of your group, Tom and Jane?

    FEMALE STUDENT:They're actually at the library....They have a biology lab assignment that's due later this afternoon...so I'm here to represent the whole group.But, um, when we got your e-mail message—about being worried about our research project—we were a little confused.We thought you were excited about our idea for the project....

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well, I think it's a great research topic, but when I looked closely at your plan for accomplishing the research, I realized that your group was probably asking for some trouble.

    FEMALE STUDENT:What do you mean?I thought that... you know... by monitoring students studying in the library, we could really, uh, get a good understanding of people's study habits and stuff.

    MALE PROFESSOR:The thing is... I think you might have a problem because of the Hawthorne effect.

    FEMALE STUDENT:The Hawthorne effect?

    MALE PROFESSOR:The Hawthorne effect is a technical term for when researchers...uh, more or less forget about a specific variable... the variable of the researchers themselves.Now, the students in the library...they're going to know that you're observing them, right?So you have to consider the effect your very presence will have on the people you're observing.

    FEMALE STUDENT:[Confused] But... so you think...I-I mean, it's not like our observations would be a secret...The students would know exactly what we'd be doing...I mean, we'd put up a sign right outside the library...

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes... but that's just it....When people know they're being watched, they act differently.Let me explain how the Hawthorne effect got its name and... well, you'll get the idea.See, there was a manufacturing facility called the Hawthorne plant.And researchers conducted some experiments there to see what conditions made workers the most productive.

    FEMALE STUDENT:What sort of conditions?

    MALE PROFESSOR:Well... one thing they experimented with was the lights... Were workers more productive with bright lights or dim lights?Well, here's the thing: Whatever the researchers did, the workers' productivity increased.When the lighting was improved, productivity went up. When the lighting was dimmed, productivity went up again.

    FEMALE STUDENT:That doesn't make a lot of sense.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Exactly.... So initially, the experiment was considered a failure.But then the researchers realized that their own presence had affected the workers' productivity.The workers knew that the researchers were watching them, and with so much attention on them, the workers felt compelled to work harder.

    FEMALE STUDENT:[As if she is understanding his point now] Oh... I guess that really could be an issue with my group's research.

    MALE PROFESSOR:Yes... But I don't want to send you all back to square one... so how about you set up a meeting with your group members and discuss this.Then we can meet again and go over your ideas... and I think that we should be able to figure out a way to get around the problem.

  • 旁白:请听一个学生和她的社会学教授之间的对话。

    教授:我很高兴你收到了我的信息并且能赶过来,不过你小组里的其他成员呢?Tom和Jane呢?

    学生:实际上他们在图书馆里,他们今天下午晚些时候有个生物课实验作业要交...所以我就代表整个小组过来了。但是......当我们收到你的电子邮件说对我们的研究项目有些担心的时候,我们有点疑惑不解。我们以为你对我们的项目设想很兴奋呢...

    教授:我觉得它是个很棒的研究主题,但是当我仔细看你们完成研究的方案时,我发现你们小组可能在自找麻烦。

    学生:什么意思?我以为,通过对在图书馆学习的学生进行监控,我们可以很好地了解人们的学习习惯等等。

    教授:是这样的,我觉得你们可能会出问题是因为Hawthorne效应。

    学生:Hawthorne效应?

    教授:Hawthorne效应是一个技术术语,指的是研究人员...多多少少忘记了一个具体的变量,那就是研究人员自己。图书馆里的学生,他们会知道你们在观察他们,对吧?所以你们必须考虑到你们的在场将会给你们要观察的人产生的影响。

    学生:但是......所以你觉得......我是说我们的观察不是个秘密。学生们会明确知道我们要做什么...因为我们会在图书馆外面张贴一个标志。

    教授:是的,但是问题就出在这儿。当人们知道有人在看他们时,他们的行为会有所不同。我来给你解释一下Hawthorne效应是如何得名的以及......听完以后你就懂了。曾经有一个制造厂叫做Hawthorne工厂。研究人员在那里进行了一些实验来看看什么条件会使得工人最多产。

    学生:什么样的条件?

    教授:他们实验的一个条件是灯光。工人在明亮的灯光下更多产,还是在昏暗的灯光下呢?问题来了,无论研究人员做什么,工人的生产能力都提高了。当灯光改善了时,产量上升了,当灯光调暗了,产量同样也上升了。

    学生:这说不大通啊。

    教授:正是!所以最初这个实验被认为是失败的。但是紧接着,研究人员意识到他们自己的存在影响了工人的生产能力。工人知道研究人员正看着他们,身上有了那么多关注之后,工人们感觉不得不更卖力地工作。

    学生:哦,我想这对我的小组研究来说真的可能是个问题。

    教授:是的,但是我不想把你们全部打回原点...所以,不如你和你的小组成员举行一个会议讨论一下。然后我们再见一面捋一捋你们的想法...我觉得我们应该能想出办法避开这个麻烦。

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  • 本题对应音频:
    2 感谢 不懂
    音频1
    解析

    题型分类:主旨题

    原文定位:But, um, when we got your e-mail message—about being worried about our research project—we were a little confused.

    选项分析:学生收到教授的邮件,邮件上教授表示了对学生研究课题的担忧,学生很困惑教授有什么担忧,所以来找教授对话,对应选项D。

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