Official 07 Set 2

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q6
置顶

the Well-made Play

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q6
What does the professor imply about the obligatory scene and the denouement?
  • A. The difference between them might be unclear to some people

  • B. Both are useful techniques for developing realistic characters

  • C. The denouncement usually occurs within the obligatory scene

  • D. The obligatory scene is usually less exciting than the denouement

显示答案 正确答案: A

我的笔记 编辑笔记

/
  • 原文
  • 译文
  • 查看听力原文

    关闭显示原文

    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a class on theater history. The professor is discussing the theater of 19th-century France .

    MALE PROFESSOR:The 19th century was the time that saw what we call “realism” developing in European theater.Uh to understand this, though, we first need to look at an earlier form of drama known as the “well-made play,” which, basically, was a pattern for constructing plays—plays that, um, beginning with some early nineteenth-century comedies in France, proved very successful commercially.

    The dramatic devices used here weren't actually anything new, they have been around for centuries.But the formula for a well-made play required that the certain of these elements being included, in a particular order, and most importantly, that everything in the play be logically connected.In fact, some of the playwrights would start by writing the end of the play and work backward toward the beginning, just to make sure each event led logically from what had gone before.

    Ok, so what are the necessary elements of a well-made play?

    Well, the first is logical exposition.Exposition is whatever background information you have to reveal to the audience so they’ll understand what’s going on.Before this time, exposition might come from the actors simply giving speeches.Uh someone might walk out on stage and say, [a little overdramatically]“In fair Verona, where we lay our scene,” and then tell all about the feuding families of Romeo and Juliet.[in contrast] But for the well-made play, even the exposition had to be logical... believable.So, for example, uh you might have two servants gossiping as they’re cleaning the house, and one says, “Oh, what a shame the master’s son is still not married.”And the other might mention a rumor about a mysterious gentleman who just moved into the town with his beautiful daughter.These comments are part of the play's logical exposition.

    The next key element of the well-made play refer to as “the inciting incident.”After we have the background information, we need a key moment to get things moving, they really makes the audience interested in what happens to the characters we just heard about.So, for example, after the two servants reveal all this background information, we meet the young man, just as he first lays eyes on the beautiful young woman and immediately falls in love.This is the inciting incident. [indicating why it’s called an “ínciting” incident] It sets off the plot of the play.

    Now, the plot of a well-made play is usually driven by secrets.Things, the audience knows, but the characters often don't know.So, for example, the audience learned through a letter or through someone else's conversationWho this mysterious gentleman is, and why he left the town many years before.But the young man doesn't know about this.And the woman doesn't understand the ancient connection between her family and his.

    And before the secrets are revealed to the main characters, the plot of the play proceeds as a series of sort of up and down moments.For example, the woman first appears not to even notice the young man, and it seems to him like the end of the world.But then, he learns that she actually wants to meet him too. So, life is wonderful.Then, if he tries to talk with her, maybe her father gets furious, for no apparent reason.So, they can‘t see each other.But, just as the young man has almost lost all hope, he finds out, well you get the idea, the reversals of the fortune continue, increasing the audience's tension and excitement,making them wonder if everything is going to come out okay or not.

    Next comes an element known as the: An obligatory scene.It's a scene, a moment in which all the secrets are revealed.In generally, things turn out well for the hero and others we care about, a happy ending of some sorts.This became so popular that the playwright almost had to include it in every play, which is why it's called: the obligatory scene.

    And that's followed by the final dramatic element---the denouement or the resolution, when all the loose ends have to be tied up in a logical way.Remember, the obligatory scene gives the audience emotional pleasure.But the denouement offers the audience a logical conclusion.That's the subtle distinction we need to try very hard to keep in mind.

    So, as I said, the well-made play, this form of play writing, became the basis for realism in drama, and for a lot of very popular 19th-century plays.And also, a pattern we find in the plots of many later plays, and even movies that we see today.

  • 旁白:听一段节关于剧院历史的讲座。这位教授正在讨论19世纪的法国剧院。

    教授:十九世纪见证了欧洲戏剧界的“现实主义”的发展。为了理解这一点,我们首先需要看一种早期被称作“佳构剧”的戏剧形式,它是一种构造戏剧的模式,从19世纪早期法国的一些喜剧开始,在商业上被证明是非常成功的。

    这些戏剧性技巧的使用并不是什么新鲜东西了,它们存在已久。但是佳构剧的准则要求被包含的元素按特定顺序排列,并且最重要的是剧中的每一情节都要在逻辑上紧密相连。事实上,一些剧作家会在一开始就把结尾写好,然后再回到开头,就是为了确保每个时间都能够与之前发生的情节保持逻辑上的一致。

    好了,佳构剧有哪些必备元素呢?

    首先是逻辑阐述。阐述是为了给观众展示背景信息,那么这样他们就会明白到底发生了什么。在这之前,阐述可能来自演员们简单的演讲。有人可能会走上舞台,说:“台词引用...”,然后告诉观众关于罗密欧与朱丽叶的家族纷争。但是对于佳构剧来说,即便是阐述,也必须符合逻辑,令人信服。比如说你可能会看见两个佣人一边收拾房子一边八卦的聊天,一人说道:“怎么主人的儿子还没结婚?”。另外一人则会提到有关一个神秘的绅士和他的女儿刚刚搬进城的谣言。这些注释都是剧中逻辑阐述的一部分。

    下一个关键元素叫做“煽动事件”。有了背景信息之后,我们需要一个关键点来使得整个剧情流转,它们必须使观众对我们刚刚听到的角色感兴趣。比如说,当两个佣人揭示了所有的背景信息之后,我们见到了这个年轻人,当他第一眼看到这个美丽姑娘然后立刻坠入了爱河。这就是煽动事件,它引发了接下来的剧情。

    现在,佳构剧的剧情通常都是由谜团驱使的。一些观众知道但是剧中角色不知道的事情。比如说,观众通过一封信或者某人的对话中得知这个神秘的男子是谁,为什么他多年前离开了家乡。但是这个年轻人并不知道这些而这个女人也不知道他们两家之间这种遥远的联系。

    在这个谜团揭晓之前,该剧本的情节被称为跌宕起伏的时刻。这个女人看上去并未注意到这个年轻人,而这对于他来说就像世界末日一样。但是接下来,他得知她也想见他。所以说人生奇妙无穷。接下来,如果他试着和她说话,那么可能她父亲会莫名其妙的极其愤怒因此他们彼此不能相见。但是就在这个男人几乎绝望之时,他发现时来运转了,这就使得观众更加紧张和激动了。他们会很想知道对事情的结局是好是坏。

    接下来的元素叫做必要场景。它是一种所有谜团都会揭晓的场景。通常来说,那些英雄和我们关注的人物都会以好的结局收尾。这实在是太受欢迎了因此剧作家不得不把它们纳入剧中成为必要场景。

    这之后就会出现最终最具戏剧性的元素---结局或者解决,这个时候所有已经明朗的情节一个个按照逻辑紧密相连。记住,必要场景给观众的是情感愉悦而结局给观众的是逻辑结尾。这是我们必须要极力分辨的细微差别。

    那么就像我说的一样,佳构剧成为了现实主义戏剧以及19 世纪很多受欢迎戏剧的基石。不仅如此,它还是之后很多喜剧情局情节的模式,甚至包括我们今天看的电影。

  • 官方解析
  • 网友贡献解析
  • 本题对应音频:
    15 感谢 不懂
    音频1
    解析

    题型分类:推理题

    题干分析:根据imply确定是推理题,根据关键词定denouncement位到原文。

    原文定位:

    And that's followed by the final dramatic element---the denouement or the resolution, when all the loose ends have to be tied up in a logical way.Remember, the obligatory scene gives the audience emotional pleasure, but the denouement offers the audience a logical conclusion. That’s the subtle distinction we need to try very hard to keep in mind.


    选项分析:

    教授说remember,强调了obligatory和denouement的区别,然后又指出这是一个subtle distinction,明显是让学生注意这个细微的区别,对应着A选项。

    B选项,这两个名词和developing character无关。C选项,within的关系是错的。D选项,less exciting是错误的。


    标签

题目讨论

如果对题目有疑问,欢迎来提出你的问题,热心的小伙伴会帮你解答。

如何吃透这篇文章?

the Well-made Play

0人精听过

预计练习时间:17min4s

马上精听本文

最新提问