Official 32 Set 2

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
置顶

Ancient Bananas

纠错
  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. The history of archaeology in Africa

  • B. Traditional methods of archaeological research

  • C. Controversial new archaeological findings

  • D. The study of archaeology in Southeast Asia

显示答案 正确答案: C

我的笔记 编辑笔记

/
  • 原文
  • 译文
  • 查看听力原文

    关闭显示原文

    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an archaeology class.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:One of the important aspects of the field of archaeology, uh, one of the things that excites me about the field, is that seemingly insignificant things can suddenly change the way we think about a culture.We're always making new discoveries that have the potential to challenge widely held beliefs.Take something like the banana, for example. It turns out that this ordinary fruit may be forcing scientists to rewrite major parts of African history.

    We know that bananas were introduced to Africa via Southeast Asia, and until recently we thought we knew when they were introduced: about 2,000 years ago.But discoveries in Uganda- that's in eastern Africa- are throwing that into question.Scientists studying soil samples there discovered evidence of bananas in sediment that was 5,000 years old.

    Now, let me explain that it's not easy to find traces of ancient bananas.The fruit is soft and doesn't have any hard seeds that might survive over the ages, so after 5,000 years you might think there would be nothing left to study.Well, fortunately for archaeologists, all plants contain what are called phytoliths in their stems and leaves.

    Phytoliths are microscopic structures made of silica, and they do not decay.When plants die and rot away, they leave these phytoliths behind.Because different plants produce differently shaped phytoliths, scientists can identify the type of plant from ancient remains.

    So those scientists in Uganda dug down to sediments that were 5,000 years old-and what do you think they found?Banana phytoliths.Obviously, this meant that we had to rethink our previous notions about when bananas first arrived in Africa, but-well, this discovery had other implications for history.

    As soon as bananas appear in the archaeological record, we know we have contact between Africa and Southeast Asia.It would appear now that this contact occurred much earlier than previously thought, al-although-now here is where the uncertainty comes in-we don't really have any solid evidence of trade between the peoples of these two regions that long ago.Presumably, if people were bringing bananas to Africa, they'd also be bringing other things, too-pottery, tools, all sorts of objects made for trade or daily use-but any such evidence is missing from the archaeological record.

    Um, the early appearance of bananas also suggests that agriculture began in this part of Africa earlier than scientists imagined.You see, bananas,at least the edible kind,can't grow without human intervention.They have to be cultivated-uh, people need to plant them and care for them.So if bananas were present in Uganda 5,000 years ago, w-we'd have to assume th-th-that someone planted them.But there are questions about this, too.We know that bananas can be a staple food that can support large populations, as they did in Uganda in the more recent past.If bananas were grown thousands of years ago, why don't we see evidence of large populations thriving in the area earlier?

    So we're left with this mystery.We have what appears to be strong biological evidence that bananas were being cultivated in Uganda as early as 5,000 years ago, but we're missing other kinds of evidence that would conclusively prove that this is so.Clearly, more research needs to be done- perhaps by some young scholar from this university?At least give it some thought.

  • 旁白:听一段节选自考古学课堂的讲座。

    教授:考古学领域的一个重要方面,使我对这一领域感兴趣的一件事是,看似无关紧要的事情能突然改变我们对文化的看法。我们总是有新的发现,它有可能完全挑战人们普遍持有的信念。以香蕉举例。事实证明,这种普通的水果可能迫使科学家重写非洲历史的主要部分!

    我们知道香蕉是通过东南亚引入非洲的,直到最近,我们也以为我们知道它们是什么时候被引进的:大约2000年前。但是在东非乌干达的一些发现却开始使它陷入质疑。研究那里土壤样品的科学家发现了5000年前香蕉沉淀物的证据。

    现在让我解释一下,找到古代香蕉的踪迹不是那么容易。这种水果很软,而且没有任何硬的种子能使它存活多年。因此5000年后,你可能会以为没有任何东西可以研究了。但是对于考古学家来说,很幸运的是所有的植物在它们的茎和叶子上都有一种被称为植物岩的物质。

    植物岩是由二氧化硅形成的微小结构,而且它们不腐烂。当植物死掉或者腐烂的时候,它们会留下植物岩。因为不同种植物会产生形状不同的植物岩,科学家可以从这种古老的残余物质判断是哪种植物遗留下来的。

    因此在乌干达的科学家挖到5000年前的沉淀物,你们猜他们发现了什么?香蕉植物岩!很明显,这意味着我们要重新思考之前的观点,关于香蕉首次抵达非洲的时间了,但是这个发现还有其他跟历史相关的含意。

    香蕉刚出现在考古记录里,我们便知道非洲和东南亚有过交流。现在表明似乎这个交流比我们之前想象得要早很多,但是现在这里有不确定因素-我们没有任何真正的确凿证据能够表明这两个地域的人民在那么久远之前有过贸易往来。据推测,如果人们把香蕉带到非洲,他们应该也会带其他的物品:瓷器、工具、各种用做贸易或日常生活的物品,但是考古记录没有这方面的证据。

    香蕉早期的出现也表明农业在非洲这部分开始的时间比科学家们想象得要早。你看,香蕉至少是可食用的种类,必须要在人的干预下才能生长。它们必须要人类耕种才能生长,人们需要种植它们并照顾它们。所以如果香蕉5000年前就出现在乌干达的话,我们应该可以假定是有人类耕种的。但是这个理论也有一些问题。我们知道香蕉可以是一种够养活很多人的主食,就像它们近些年在乌干达那样。如果香蕉几千年前就种植了,那为什么我们没有看到在这一地区大量人口增长的证据呢?

    所以这还是未解答的谜团。我们有看似强有力的生物证据表明香蕉早在5000年前就在乌干达耕种了,但是我们缺少其他可以最后证明这个结论的一些证据。很明显,还需要做更多的研究。或许这个大学的一些年轻学者可以做?至少思考一下它。

  • 官方解析
  • 网友贡献解析
  • 本题对应音频:
    0 感谢 不懂
    音频1
    解析

    题型分类:主旨题

    原文定位:

    One of the important aspects of the field of archaeology, uh, one of the things that excites me about the field, is that seemingly insignificant things can suddenly change the way we think about a culture. We’re always making new discoveries that have the potential to challenge widely held beliefs. Take something like the banana, for example. It turns out that this ordinary fruit may be forcing scientists to rewrite major parts of African history.

    选项分析:

    开门见山指出考古学中很重要的一点是新发现会改变我们长久以来的想法,拿香蕉举例。之后全篇都在说香蕉的新发现是如何challenge一些长久以来的理论的。

    C项说本文主要聊了受争议的新考古发现。controversial对应challenge,new archaeological finding对应banana。选C

    其他项不是主要论述对象

    标签

题目讨论

如果对题目有疑问,欢迎来提出你的问题,热心的小伙伴会帮你解答。

如何吃透这篇文章?

Ancient Bananas

0人精听过

预计练习时间:15min34s

马上精听本文

最新提问