Official 49 Set 3

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Educator Maria Montessori

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What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. Children's reactions to the Montessori Method

  • B. Teacher training in the Montessori Method

  • C. How the Montessori Method facilitates children's development

  • D. How Maria Montessori developed her educational method

显示答案 正确答案: C

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in an education class. The professor is discussing the Italian educator Maria Montessori.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Okay, if you did your reading for today then you were introduced to a very influential alternative to traditional education.This educational philosophy and methodology was pioneered in Italy in the early 1900s by Dr. Maria Montessori.It's called the Montessori Method.But what made the Montessori Method for young children so different?What made it so different, so special?

    MALE STUDENT:It's based on very different ideas about how kids learn best, right?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Um, hmm. It was groundbreaking.To begin with, unlike the traditional classrooms at the time, the Montessori classroom environment was more suited to the child—the furniture was child-sized; well, it's that way in almost all schools now, but that wasn't always the case.We can thank Montessori for this.Uh, you won't see any long benches with children in rows or heavy desks that separate children.Children are free to interact with each other.An-and in Montessori classrooms the furniture is lightweight, so children can move it around easily.And having furniture and materials made to fit them makes kids feel more competent.This fits in with Montessori's notion of liberty and autonomy.Children are free to move around the room, and they learn to do things for themselves.

    MALE STUDENT:I'm not sure I get that part. It sounds like potential chaos.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Oh, no, no, no.Let's not confuse this liberty of activity with lack of discipline.In fact, teachers have to maintain this specific environment carefully through a number of rules, which are generally about respect and what's right.It-it's just that the child needs freedom of choice to develop independence and self-direction.Also, unlike what happens in most conventional classrooms, children choose their own activities.They may be guided by the teacher, but it's ultimately up to each child to select tasks.Which brings us to the manipulative equipment you find in a Montessori classroom, ah, like little boards that have rough or smooth surfaces, or blocks that can be stacked into a tower.Now, this equipment was designed by Montessori over time with much experimentation—designed, um, well, designed to help children teach themselves, through playing.

    FEMALE STUDENT:Well, what do the teachers do, I mean, if the kids are teaching themselves?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Ah, well, that's a good question.To start, uh, a child may not work with an activity until the teacher has demonstrated its proper use.Then the Montessori teacher's job is to observe the child's play, because when the children "play" they're acquiring the basis for later concepts.So the teacher helps motivate and focus each child and monitors the child's progress, but does not interfere with the child's observations and deductions.That was—and still is—a novel idea, and—for many teachers—not the easiest thing to do.In fact, for some it's very difficult.Montessori herself called the teacher a "director."Remember, the independence of the learner lies at the heart of the Montessori methodology.

    FEMALE STUDENT:OK, yeah, it does seem like the teacher'd need a lot of training and patience.

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:True. As I said, it's not easy for a lot of teachers to step back like that.But getting back to the equipment.Basic Montessori equipment can be divided into a number of major subject areas, such as Practical Life, Mathematics, and what is called Sensorial.With the sensorial equipment the children can explore things like sounds and textures.At the same time they develop motor skills.But this apparent play is laying the groundwork for later math and language work.Now let's take a look at the materials called "brown stairs."For a young child playing with these graduated blocks, these uh, brown stairs, they are not just a sensorial lesson.By manipulating them, the child develops fine motor skills and by sorting and classifying them by size, by weight, the child learns some basic mathematics.…Similarly, with Practical Life equipment, the child can learn how to button a shirt, cut up an apple for a snack, and, uh, other real-world tasks.

    MALE STUDENT:With all this integration and real-world learning, is there any room for creativity?

    FEMALE PROFESSOR:Is creativity encouraged?Well, Montessori teachers wouldn't praise a child for using a violin as a baseball bat or for putting it on their head like a hat.But, actually, creativity comes through learning to play the violin, using the object for the purpose it was intended, and Practical Life exercises stress that.

  • 旁白:听一段教育课程的讲座。教授正在讨论意大利教育家玛利娅•蒙台梭利。

    教授:好的,如果你们完成了今天的阅读,那么你已经接触到了,除了传统教育以外,非常具有影响力的教育(方式)。这种教育理念和方法,是由玛利娅•蒙台梭利在意大利开创的。这就是所谓的蒙台梭利方法。但是,对年幼的孩子来说,蒙台梭利方法有什么不同?是什么让它如此与众不同,如此特别?

    学生:对于孩子如何才能更好的学习,这种教育方法秉持非常不同的观念?

    教授:嗯,这是开创性的。首先,与当时的传统教室不同,蒙台梭利的课堂环境更适合孩子,家具是儿童大小的。好吧,现在几乎所有的学校都是这样,但在当时情况并非总如此。对于这一点,我们可以感谢蒙台梭利。你看不到到孩子们排成排坐在长凳上或是将孩子分隔开的沉重的书桌。孩子们可以自由地相互交流。在蒙台梭利的教室里,家具是轻便的,所以孩子们可以轻松地移动它。让家具和材料来配合孩子们,让孩子觉得更有能力。这符合蒙台梭利自由和自治的概念。孩子们可以自由地在房间里走动,他们学会为自己做事。

    学生:我不确定我理解了那部分。听起来像是可能很混乱。

    教授:噢,不不不。不要把这种活动的自由性与缺乏纪律混为一谈。事实上,教师必须通过一些规则来谨慎地维护这个特定的环境,这些规则通常是关于尊重和什么是正确的。孩子需要自由选择的权利来培养独立性和自我指导。此外,不同于大多数传统的教室,孩子们选择自己的活动。他们可能是由老师指导,但这最终取决于每个孩子选择的任务。这就将我们带到蒙台梭利教室的可操作的器材(的话题上),比如有粗糙或光滑表面的小板子,可以堆叠成塔的积木。这个器材是由蒙台梭利经过长时间的实验设计出来的,旨在帮助孩子通过游戏自学。

    学生:那么,老师们做什么? 我的意思是,如果孩子们在自学。

    教授:啊,这是个好问题。首先,在老师演示正确的操作方式之前,一个孩子可能无法开展活动。那么,蒙台梭利老师的工作就是观察孩子的玩耍,因为当孩子们玩耍时,他们在为以后的思想概念(的形成)获取基础。因此,教师要去激励和关注每个孩子,并监督孩子的进步,但不干扰孩子的观察和推断。这在过去,乃至于现在仍然是个新奇的理念,而且对许多老师来说,不是最容易做的事。事实上,对于一些人来说,这是非常困难的。蒙台梭利自己把老师称作为监督人。记住,学习者的独立性是蒙台梭利方法论的核心所在。

    学生:好的,是的,看起来老师需要大量的训练和耐心。

    教授:是的,正如我所说,对于很多老师来说像那样退后(观察孩子)是不容易的。我们还是回到设备(的话题)。蒙台梭利的基本器材可分为多个主要科目,如日常生活、数学以及所谓的感官。有了感官的设备,孩子们就可以探索声音和纹理之类的事物。同时,他们发展运动技能。但这种表面上的游戏为以后的数学和语言学习打下了基础。现在让我们来看看所谓的棕色楼梯的材料。对于把玩这些进阶型积木的小孩子,这些褐色的积木不仅仅是一个感官的训练。通过操纵它们,孩子发展了精细的运动技能,通过按大小和重量分类,孩子学习一些基本的数学运算。同样,通过日常生活设备,孩子可以学习如何扣衬衫,切苹果来制作小食以及其他现实世界的任务。

    学生:有了这些整合和实际的学习,还有创造力的空间吗?

    教授:会鼓励创造力吗?好的,很多蒙台梭利老师都不会表扬孩子用小提琴当棒球棒或像一顶帽子一样戴在他们的头。但事实上,创造力来自于学习拉小提琴,来自于为了达到目的而使用某些事物,并且日常生活练习强调了这一点。

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    题型分类: 主旨题
    原文定位:
    Okay, if you did your reading for today then you were introduced to a very influential alternative to traditional education. This educational philosophy and methodology was pioneered in Italy in the early 1900s by Dr. Maria Montessori. It’s called the Montessori Method.
    But what made the Montessori Method for young children so different? What made it so different, so special?
    选项分析:讲座开篇第一句已经告诉我们要讲的是蒙特梭利的教学方法和理论。由后文可知,这种方法是用于小孩子的,所以答案选C。

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Educator Maria Montessori

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