Official 47 Set 2

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  • Q4
  • Q5
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Hernani

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What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. The influence of Hernani on later French plays

  • B. The way that Hernani challenged traditional guidelines for plays

  • C. The influence of Shakespeare on Victor Hugo’s plays

  • D. The changing attitudes toward Victor Hugo’s plays in the nineteenth century

显示答案 正确答案: B

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:So, urn, in France, you have the French Academy, which was created to uphold standards of literary taste.It was a very conservative organization.It tried to keep things a certain way...uh...resist change.

    It dictated that French plays should be neoclassical in form, you know, have five acts, sophisticated language, etc.But try as it might, it couldn't stop change.French drama was changing, though the transition from neoclassical drama to Romantic drama was itself pretty uh … [vocal hesitation] dramatic.

    Let's look at a play by Victor Hugo called Hernani—or, as the French would say, Hernani.Although Hugo was a truly brilliant writer of essays, poems, novels, and plays, uh, his play, Hernani, isn't a great play in and of itself.It's got a really confusing, convoluted storyline.Critics back then were unimpressed by it, though it's likely that their own feelings about how plays should be—neoclassical or romantic—affected their opinions about it.

    But its premiere—in Paris, in 1830—was anything but ordinary.Hernani's opening night was probably one of the most important literary events in 19th century France!

    What happened was...OK. [not much upspeak] Hugo was a romanticist, right?He was part of a growing movement of—of young authors, and artists, who were rebelling against neoclassicism—against the conventions of neoclassicism.And what this meant, is that Hugo opposed the neoclassical unities that French theater had inherited from Greek drama.These unities were basically the unity of time, space and action, meaning that the entire play consisted of just one main event that was unfolding in just one specific place, usually in the course of one day.

    And Hugo found this to be too constraining. He looked for inspiration in...well...OK.Hugo is from the 19th century, but he looked to Shakespeare.Several centuries in the past—long before neoclassicism.

    For example, in Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, the play moves from indoors to outdoors, from the city to the forest and back again.So there was a kind of mobility in...in the use of space and…Well, in A Midsummer Night's Dream, of course the action in that play takes place on a single summer's night.But, in Shakespeare's other plays, in Hamlet, for example, time elapses, people travel, they go to other destinations and the action is not limited to one plot.

    Hugo also opposed the neoclassical insistence on the separation of genres.For a neoclassicist, a play could only be dramatic, and high art, or comic, light-hearted.And in either case, there was still a sense of decorum; characters might make jokes and get into silly situations, but they’re still regular people, like not in disguise or anything.There's still a certain amount of restraint in a neoclassical comedy.

    Again, earlier works by Shakespeare provided very different models that Hugo found more appealing.Many of Shakespeare's plays, even the tragedies, contain scenes with ridiculous, outlandish characters, like clowns, so that many of the plays have both qualities: a serious, dramatic side, and comedic scenes with the clowns that break the drama.

    And Hugo, like other romantics, was also opposed to the artistic rules that the neoclassicists had inherited from the Enlightenment.The romantics wanted a more passionate kind of theater and it was more rooted in the individual and the individual sensibility.

    Romanticism was political as well—claiming that individuals, people, could govern themselves… without the need for kings and queens.There was an ideological struggle, between a lot of young people, artists—people who wanted change—and people who didn't.So, of course Romanticism was controversial.

    Now, Hernani was a play that incorporated these romantic conventions.Hugo suspected that neoclassical audiences would be hostile to this new form, and the ideas it represented.So to protect himself, he rounded up his friends for opening night.And hundreds of them came to the theater that night.

    And Hugo writes about this arrival of the romantics, these wild and bizarre characters and their outlandish customs, which stupefied and infuriated the more conventional theater-goers.So, the play that night took forever to finish because it was interrupted many times and there were these debates in the audience between Hugo's friends and supporters, the romantics, and the Neoclassicists, the supporters of the old school.

    Lots of interruptions, and afterward, what had been a debate inside the theater spilled out onto the street and there were fist fights… it was a complete free-for-all. And this went on for the next forty-five nights.Every night that the play was performed, there was this excitement and controversy that was, was really an expression of the kinds of passions that...uh...differences of aesthetics and political opinions, and taste could give rise to.

  • 旁白:请听文学课上的部分内容。

    教授:那么,在法国有一个法国学会,它是为了维护文学审美的标准而设立的。是一个非常保守的组织。它试图以某种方式保持事物...呃...抵制改变。

    它规定法国的话剧在形式上应该是新古典主义的,要有五幕、精致的语言等等。但尽管努力尝试了,它还是无法阻挡变化。法国的戏剧在变,虽然从新古典主义戏剧过渡到浪漫主义戏剧本身就十分戏剧化。

    我们来看看Victor Hugo写的一出叫做Hernani的戏。虽然Hugo确实是一位才华横溢的散文作家、诗人、小说家和剧作家,但是,他的剧本Hernani本身不是一部伟大的剧本。它的故事线非常令人困惑,十分费解。那会儿的批评家对这部戏评价不高,虽然很可能他们对戏剧应该是什么样子的感情,比如应该是新古典主义的或浪漫主义的,影响了他们对它的看法。

    但是它1830年在巴黎的首映非同寻常。Hernani的首演之夜可能是19世纪的法国最重要的文学事件之一。

    发生的事情是......Hugo是浪漫主义学派的,对吧?他是当时年轻作家和艺术家发起的不断壮大的运动中的一份子,这些人反抗新古典主义,反对新古典主义惯例。而这就意味着Hugo反对法国戏剧从希腊话剧中继承的新古典主义三一律。这些规则主要是时间、地点和情节的一致性,即整个话剧仅由一个主要的事件组成,事件发生在一个具体的地点,通常在一天之内。

    Hugo认为这太过约束了,他寻找灵感于.....Hugo生活在19世纪,但他向莎士比亚看齐。在过去的几个世纪里——早在新古典主义之前。

    举个例子来说,在莎士比亚的戏剧《仲夏夜之梦》中,这部戏从室内演到了室外,从城市演到了森林,然后再回来。所以在空间的使用方面有某种移动性和...当然了,在《仲夏夜之梦》中,戏剧的情节发生在一个夏天的晚上。但是在莎士比亚的其他戏剧中,比如在《哈姆雷特》中,时间是有推移的,人们会旅行,会去其他目的地,而且戏剧不局限于一个情节。

    Hugo还反对新古典主义对流派分离的坚持。对一个新古典主义者来说,一部戏只能是戏剧性的和高雅的艺术,或者滑稽的,轻松的。无论是哪一个类别,仍存在一种守礼的感觉;戏剧中的角色也许会开玩笑,陷入愚蠢的境况,但是他们仍是普通人,没有伪装之类的。在新古典主义的喜剧中仍有一定程度的约束。

    莎士比亚的早期作品提供了非常不同的模式,Hugo认为它们更具吸引力。莎士比亚的许多戏剧,甚至是悲剧,都包含了一些荒谬的、古怪的角色,比如小丑,所以他的很多戏剧都同时有两个特点:严肃的戏剧的一面,和打破戏剧的有小丑的喜剧场景。

    而Hugo,和其他浪漫主义者一样,也反对新古典主义者从启蒙运动中继承的艺术法则。浪漫主义者想要的是一种更有激情的戏剧,而它更根植于个人及个人的情感。

    浪漫主义也具有政治性,宣称个体,人们能够控制自己,不需要国王和王后。很多年轻人、艺术家,渴望改变和不希望改变的人们之间存在着一种意识形态上的挣扎。所以浪漫主义当然富有争议。

    Hernani是一出糅杂了这些浪漫习俗的戏剧。Hugo怀疑新古典主义的观众会对这种新的形式以及它所代表的想法持有敌意。因此为了保护自己,他在开演之夜把他的朋友们聚到了一起。那一晚,他的数百位朋友来到了剧院。

    Hugo写到了这些浪漫主义者的到来,这些疯狂奇异的角色和他们古怪的服装,这令更多的传统观剧者十分惊诧并大为愤怒。于是那一夜的戏剧演了特别长的时间才得以谢幕,因为它被打断了很多次,而且观众中发生了很多争辩,Hugo的朋友们和支持者即浪漫主义者们和守旧派的支持者们——新古典主义者之间的争辩。

    很多次打断,而且结束之后,剧院内的争辩扩散到了街头,演变成了斗殴,完全就是大混战,而且接下来的45个夜晚这种情况一直持续出现。每个这出戏剧上演的夜晚都有这种兴奋和争论,而这实在是审美和政治观点和品味的差异所带来的种种热情的表现。

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  • 本题对应音频:
    2 感谢 不懂
    音频1
    解析
    题型分类: 主旨题
    题干分析:讲座关于的主旨
    原文定位:
    MALE PROFESSOR
    So, um, in France, you have the French Academy, which was created to uphold standards of literary taste. It was a very conservative organization. It tried to keep things a, a certain way… resist change. It dictated that French plays should be neoclassical in form. You know, have five acts, sophisticated language, et cetera. But try as it might, it couldn’t stop change. French drama was changing, though the transition from neoclassical drama to romantic drama was itself pretty uh … [vocal hesitation] dramatic. Let’s look at a play by Victor Hugo called Hernani—or, as the French would say, Hernani.

    选项分析:

    讲座开头,教授法国传统戏剧的背景,介绍Hernani是浪漫主义反对新古典主义的开端。之后,教授分别介绍它突破传统戏剧的时间地点限制,突破传统戏剧的类型限制,以及突破传统戏剧的政治限制,最后介绍它引起了极大的社会争议,对应选项B:The way that Hernani challenged traditional guidelines for plays。


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