Official 47 Set 2

  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6


  • Q1
  • Q2
  • Q3
  • Q4
  • Q5
  • Q6
What is the lecture mainly about?
  • A. The influence of Hernani on later French plays

  • B. The way that Hernani challenged traditional guidelines for plays

  • C. The influence of Shakespeare on Victor Hugo’s plays

  • D. The changing attitudes toward Victor Hugo’s plays in the nineteenth century

显示答案 正确答案: B

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    NARRATOR:Listen to part of a lecture in a literature class.

    MALE PROFESSOR:So, urn, in France, you have the French Academy, which was created to uphold standards of literary taste.It was a very conservative organization.It tried to keep things a certain way...uh...resist change.

    It dictated that French plays should be neoclassical in form, you know, have five acts, sophisticated language, etc.But try as it might, it couldn't stop change.French drama was changing, though the transition from neoclassical drama to Romantic drama was itself pretty uh … [vocal hesitation] dramatic.

    Let's look at a play by Victor Hugo called Hernani—or, as the French would say, Hernani.Although Hugo was a truly brilliant writer of essays, poems, novels, and plays, uh, his play, Hernani, isn't a great play in and of itself.It's got a really confusing, convoluted storyline.Critics back then were unimpressed by it, though it's likely that their own feelings about how plays should be—neoclassical or romantic—affected their opinions about it.

    But its premiere—in Paris, in 1830—was anything but ordinary.Hernani's opening night was probably one of the most important literary events in 19th century France!

    What happened was...OK. [not much upspeak] Hugo was a romanticist, right?He was part of a growing movement of—of young authors, and artists, who were rebelling against neoclassicism—against the conventions of neoclassicism.And what this meant, is that Hugo opposed the neoclassical unities that French theater had inherited from Greek drama.These unities were basically the unity of time, space and action, meaning that the entire play consisted of just one main event that was unfolding in just one specific place, usually in the course of one day.

    And Hugo found this to be too constraining. He looked for inspiration in...well...OK.Hugo is from the 19th century, but he looked to Shakespeare.Several centuries in the past—long before neoclassicism.

    For example, in Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, the play moves from indoors to outdoors, from the city to the forest and back again.So there was a kind of mobility the use of space and…Well, in A Midsummer Night's Dream, of course the action in that play takes place on a single summer's night.But, in Shakespeare's other plays, in Hamlet, for example, time elapses, people travel, they go to other destinations and the action is not limited to one plot.

    Hugo also opposed the neoclassical insistence on the separation of genres.For a neoclassicist, a play could only be dramatic, and high art, or comic, light-hearted.And in either case, there was still a sense of decorum; characters might make jokes and get into silly situations, but they’re still regular people, like not in disguise or anything.There's still a certain amount of restraint in a neoclassical comedy.

    Again, earlier works by Shakespeare provided very different models that Hugo found more appealing.Many of Shakespeare's plays, even the tragedies, contain scenes with ridiculous, outlandish characters, like clowns, so that many of the plays have both qualities: a serious, dramatic side, and comedic scenes with the clowns that break the drama.

    And Hugo, like other romantics, was also opposed to the artistic rules that the neoclassicists had inherited from the Enlightenment.The romantics wanted a more passionate kind of theater and it was more rooted in the individual and the individual sensibility.

    Romanticism was political as well—claiming that individuals, people, could govern themselves… without the need for kings and queens.There was an ideological struggle, between a lot of young people, artists—people who wanted change—and people who didn't.So, of course Romanticism was controversial.

    Now, Hernani was a play that incorporated these romantic conventions.Hugo suspected that neoclassical audiences would be hostile to this new form, and the ideas it represented.So to protect himself, he rounded up his friends for opening night.And hundreds of them came to the theater that night.

    And Hugo writes about this arrival of the romantics, these wild and bizarre characters and their outlandish customs, which stupefied and infuriated the more conventional theater-goers.So, the play that night took forever to finish because it was interrupted many times and there were these debates in the audience between Hugo's friends and supporters, the romantics, and the Neoclassicists, the supporters of the old school.

    Lots of interruptions, and afterward, what had been a debate inside the theater spilled out onto the street and there were fist fights… it was a complete free-for-all. And this went on for the next forty-five nights.Every night that the play was performed, there was this excitement and controversy that was, was really an expression of the kinds of passions that...uh...differences of aesthetics and political opinions, and taste could give rise to.

  • 旁白:请听文学课上的部分内容。



    我们来看看Victor Hugo写的一出叫做Hernani的戏。虽然Hugo确实是一位才华横溢的散文作家、诗人、小说家和剧作家,但是,他的剧本Hernani本身不是一部伟大的剧本。它的故事线非常令人困惑,十分费解。那会儿的批评家对这部戏评价不高,虽然很可能他们对戏剧应该是什么样子的感情,比如应该是新古典主义的或浪漫主义的,影响了他们对它的看法。












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    题型分类: 主旨题
    So, um, in France, you have the French Academy, which was created to uphold standards of literary taste. It was a very conservative organization. It tried to keep things a, a certain way… resist change. It dictated that French plays should be neoclassical in form. You know, have five acts, sophisticated language, et cetera. But try as it might, it couldn’t stop change. French drama was changing, though the transition from neoclassical drama to romantic drama was itself pretty uh … [vocal hesitation] dramatic. Let’s look at a play by Victor Hugo called Hernani—or, as the French would say, Hernani.


    讲座开头,教授法国传统戏剧的背景,介绍Hernani是浪漫主义反对新古典主义的开端。之后,教授分别介绍它突破传统戏剧的时间地点限制,突破传统戏剧的类型限制,以及突破传统戏剧的政治限制,最后介绍它引起了极大的社会争议,对应选项B:The way that Hernani challenged traditional guidelines for plays。