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第1段

1 .<-NARRATOR:-> Now listen to part of a lecture in a psychology class. The professor is discussing the mathematical capabilities of babies.

现在,请听某堂心理课上的部分讲课内容。教授正在谈论有关婴儿数学能力的问题。

第2段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:-> Scientists have learned some interesting things about the intellectual abilities of babies.

科学家们在研究婴儿的数学能力时,发现了一些非常有意思的现象。

2 .They say there is evidence that babies as young as five months old can do basic arithmetic - that they can add.

他们说,有证据表明五个月大的婴儿就能够做一些基本的算术。他们会做加法运算。

3 .Scientists think babies know that one plus one equals two, and not one.

科学家认为婴儿知道一加一等于二,不等于一。

4 .The evidence is indirect because obviously, you can't ask a five-month-old baby to add up some numbers for you.

当然这些证据是间接的。很明显,你不可能叫一个五岁的婴儿给你做一些加法算术题。

5 .So they devised an experiment where... err in this experiment, a baby is shown a doll on a table.

所以呢,他们设计了一个实验。唔,在实验中,他们给婴儿展示了一个放在桌子上的玩偶。

6 .OK, so the baby looks at the doll.

是的,那么小宝宝呢就看着这个玩偶。

7 .Then the researcher lowers a screen in front of the doll, so now the doll is hidden behind the screen.

接着,研究人员在玩偶前面放了一个挡板,所以现在呢,玩偶是藏在挡板后面的。

8 .But the baby's already seen the doll and so knows it's there.

但问题是,小宝宝已经看到玩偶了,所以,他是知道那里有个玩偶的。

9 .Well then the researcher takes a second doll and very obviously places it behind the screen with the first one.

嗯,接着调查人员拿出第二个玩偶,刻意地让小宝宝看见把第二个玩偶也放在挡板后面,和第一个玩偶在一起。

10 .OK, so now you have two dolls behind the screen, right?

好的,那么现在是有两个玩偶在挡板后面,对吧?

11 .Well, no 'cuz what the researchers did was they secretly took away one of the dolls.

嗯,不对,因为研究人员偷偷地拿走了其中一个玩偶。

12 .And then when they raised the screen back up, the baby, well, it expects to see two dolls right?

然后,当他们把挡板升起的时候,小宝宝,呃,本来是期待能看到两个玩偶的,对吧?

13 .But there is only one there.

但是,实际情况是,只有一个玩偶在那里!

14 .And guess what?

大家猜猜接着会怎么样?

15 .The baby's surprised.

小宝宝露出了惊讶的神情。

16 .It expects two but it only sees one.

本来是两个,现在却只看见一个。

17 .How could the researchers tell that the baby's surprised?

研究人员是怎么判定小宝宝露出惊讶的神情的呢?

18 .Well they recorded the baby's eye movements on camera.

嗯,他们通过照相机记录了孩子眼球的运动情况。

19 .And we know that when a baby is surprised by something, a loud noise, or an unexpected flash of light maybe, it stares at where the noise or light is coming from.

我们知道,当宝宝对某物表示惊奇的时候,比如一声巨响或者意料外的一道闪光,他们会直勾勾地盯着,试图去发现响声或者闪光是从哪里来的。

20 .And that's what the babies in the experiment did - they stared, 'cuz a baby knows that if you add one doll and one doll, you should have two dolls.

而在实验中,宝宝也是这样的反应。他们直直地盯着,因为宝宝知如果你加了一个玩偶,又加了一个玩偶,你应该是有两个玩偶。

21 .So when it sees one doll, then it stares because it's surprised.

所以,当宝宝只看到一个玩偶时,他们就直直地盯着,因为觉得很惊讶。