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第1段

1 .Listen to part of a lecture in a music history class.

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第2段

1 .Okay. Let's carry on with some more American music history, shall we?

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2 .For this lecture, I will discuss the effect that ragtime music had on the way the piano was played after, um, ragtime's inception.

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3 .From a historic point of view, um, ragtime is an American musical genre enjoying its peak popularity, from, um, 1899 to 1918.

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4 .Ragtime was the first truly American musical genre, preceding jazz.

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5 .It originated in African American musical communities,

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6 .descended from the jigs and marches played by all-black bands common in all Northern cities with black populations.

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7 .Questions? Oh, no problem.

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8 .Well, ragtime began as dance music years before being published as popular sheet music for piano.

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9 .Scott Joplin, the composer/pianist who was known as the, ah,

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10 ."King of Ragtime" called the effect "weird and intoxicating."

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11 .By 1897, several important early rags were published,

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12 .and in 1899 Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag was published.

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13 .Now, some authorities consider ragtime to be a form of classical music.

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14 .Additionally, the name swing later came to be applied to an early genre of jazz that developed from ragtime.

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15 .So we can see early on that ragtime had a great influence on music in general at that time.

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第3段

1 .Okay. Now, let's get to its influence on the piano.

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2 .To start, the heyday of ragtime was before the widespread availability of sound recording.

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3 .Like classical music, and unlike jazz,

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4 .classical ragtime was a written tradition,

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5 .being distributed in sheet music rather than through recordings or by imitation of live performances.

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6 .Ragtime music was also distributed via piano rolls for player pianos.

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第4段

1 .Let's talk about this piano roll.

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2 .By definition, um, a piano roll is the medium used to operate the player piano,

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3 .band/fairground organs, calliopes, and hand-cranked organs and pipe organs.

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4 .Basically, a piano roll is a roll of paper with holes punched in it.

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5 .The position and length of the perforations determined the note played on the piano.

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6 .Well, the piano roll moves over a device known as the 'tracker bar,'

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7 .which had 88 holes, um, or one for each piano key.

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8 .When a perforation passed over the hole, the note sounds.

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9 .Believe it or not, piano rolls have been in continuous mass production since around 1897.

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10 .So, even though a piano roll was used to make a piano play without an actual person playing,

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11 .we must remember that pianists actually created the music for the piano rolls.

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12 .Confused? I hope not.

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13 .Let's move on then.

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第5段

1 .Another change was called the novelty piano, which can be considered a pianistic cousin of jazz,

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2 .and this appeared around the same time as the piano roll.

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3 .Its originators were mostly piano roll artists from the Chicago area.

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4 .Actually, the novelty piano was developed as a vehicle to showcase the talents of these professionals and was more often sold in the form of recordings and piano rolls than as sheet music.

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第6段

1 .Anyways, novelty piano slowly fell out of favor to, or was absorbed into,

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2 .the new orchestral styles as the piano moved off center stage and took a support role.

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3 .By, um, 1920, though, two new technologies had appeared

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4 .which allowed the general public to hear music as performed by skilled musicians:

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5 .the "handplayed" piano roll and the phonograph record.

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第7段

1 .Now, the most important new form of actually playing the piano in a live performance was called, ah, stride piano, used primarily in jazz.

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2 .The distinctive technique originated in, um, Harlem, in or about 1919.

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3 .It was partially influenced by ragtime,

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4 .which features improvisation, blue notes, and swing rhythms.

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5 .The over simplistic name "stride" comes from the "striding" lefthand movement.

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6 .See how I'm doing it?

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7 .As well, pedal technique further varied the left-hand sound.

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8 .Quite frankly, stride piano is one of the most difficult styles of jazz piano playing

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9 .because it takes years to master and is often confused with other jazz piano where the left hand alternates. Like this!

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第8段

1 .Okay, on a final note, a significant ragtime revival occurred in the 1950s.

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2 .Ragtime styles of the past were made available on records,

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3 .and new rags were composed, published, and recorded.

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4 .A number of popular recordings featured, um,

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5 ."prepared pianos," simulating the sound of a piano in an old honkey tonk.

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6 .So, as you can see, we still have portions of piano ragtime music incorporated into the music we hear today.

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