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第1段

1 .<-NARRATOR:-> Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

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第2段

1 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:-> Elephants are fascinating, but the beliefs you just read about are based on misunderstandings of elephant behavior.

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第3段

1 .First, we should not assume that old elephants are aware they will die soon just because they break away from their herds.

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2 .There’s a very practical reason why old elephants leave their herds.

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第4段

1 .Ya see, when elephants get old enough, their teeth become worn down and they have difficulty chewing.

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2 .So elderly elephants wander away from their herd to look for softer vegetation that’s easier to eat.

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3 .Softer vegetation is usually found near water.

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4 .That’s why many old elephants graze near water and eventually die there, in areas we’ve come to call elephant graveyards.

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第5段

1 .Second, the issue of whether elephants have artistic ability.

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2 .If you watch elephants trained to paint, you’ll notice that a human trainer is stroking the elephant’s ears whenever the elephant moves the paintbrush.

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第6段

1 .Elephant ears are very sensitive, and touching them in certain ways can be used to train the elephants to do tricks.

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2 .The trainer teaches the elephant to remember certain patterns of paintbrush strokes, and then encourages the elephant to repeat the brushstrokes by touching its ears.

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3 .So an elephant using a paintbrush is just painting lines it’s been trained to paint.

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4 .It doesn’t necessarily know that the lines are supposed to represent flowers or animals.

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第7段

1 .Third, Pliny the Elder and others are misinterpreting the reaction of elephants to mice.

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2 .Elephants that react fearfully to mice aren’t reacting to the mice themselves, but to the fact that the mice are unfamiliar to them.

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3 .Being cautious about unfamiliar animals is a natural instinct.

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第8段

1 .But elephants that live in environments where mice are common, like elephants in zoos, don’t react with fear to the mice.

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2 .Clearly, once elephants become familiar with mice and realize that they don’t pose a threat, they don’t mind them.

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