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第1段

1 .Listen to part of a lecture in a modern printing class.

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第2段

1 .Good evening. Everyone ready?

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2 .Okay. To night we will discuss some of the details of the modern printing process.

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3 .I will begin with the changes in the printing process introduced in the 19th century.

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4 .First of all, does anyone know the first step a 19th-century printer had to do in order to print something?

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第3段

1 .I haven't a clue.

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第4段

1 .Well, make sure you take good notes then.

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2 .Okay, the first step in the 19th-century printing process was to create the typeset.

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3 .Let me explain.

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4 .By the 19th century, printers began using what we now call the hot metal typeset.

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5 .Hot metal typesetting is a method, um,

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6 .of creating a relief printing surface by injecting a molten metal alloy into a matrix.

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第5段

1 .Ma'am, I don't want to sound uninformed, but, ah, what's an alloy?

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第6段

1 .You're kidding?

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2 .Hmm. An alloy is simply a mixture of metals to create a new metal.

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3 .Anyways, this alloy was typically an alloy of lead, tin, and a small amount of antimony.

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4 .The resulting lines of type could range in size from 6 pt. to 24 pt.

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5 .It was pioneered by the companies Monotype and Linotype in the late 19th century,

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6 .and their typesetting machines dominated the industry for the next century.

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第7段

1 .You mean they were using this in the 20th century?

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第8段

1 .Oh sure. Remember, computers weren't commonplace in the printing industry until the 1980s.

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2 .Anyways, moving along, the Linotype machine uses a 90-character keyboard to create an entire line of metal type at once.

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3 .This allows much faster printing than with the Gutenburg style system,

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4 .um, in which operators placed down one letter at a time.

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5 .The machine revolutionized newspaper publishing,

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6 .making it possible for a relatively small number of operators to set type for many pages on a daily basis.

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第9段

1 .You mean this was the first new printing process since Gutenburg?

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第10段

1 .Correct. Let me explain how it works.

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2 .This new process was produced by Ottmar Mergenthaler in 1886.

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3 .His Linotype machine was 2.1 meters tall.

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4 .First of all, a typesetter would put the letter molds to be used to form a line on a page.

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5 .Once an entire line of molds was assembled,

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6 .the machine poured moiten type metal,

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7 .which is an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony,

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8 .into the stacked-up molds.

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9 .This produced a complete line of type in reverse,

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10 .so it would read properly when used to transfer ink onto paper.

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11 .The lines of type were then assembled by hand into a page.

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12 .Are we good so far?

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第11段

1 .You mean this was all done by hand?

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第12段

1 .Naturally. But the most difficult process was punch cutting.

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第13段

1 .Well, what's that?

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第14段

1 .Well, the cutting of letter punches was a highlyskilled craft requiring much patience and practice.

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2 .The punch-cutter began by, um, transferring the outline of a letter design to one end of a metal bar.

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3 .Do you understand?

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第15段

1 .Yeah, it sounds pretty basic.

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第16段

1 .Good. Okay. Next, the outer shape of the letter punch could be cut directly,

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2 .but the internal curves of a small punch were particularly difficult,

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3 .as it was necessary to cut deep enough and straight into the metal.

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4 .This was almost never done with cutting tools,

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5 .so they used what is called a counterpunch,

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6 .which is a type of punch used in the cutting of other punches.

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第17段

1 .You mean they used a counterpunch to cut into the letter punch?

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2 .Exactly.Of course, the counterpunch had to be harder than the letter punch itself.

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3 .This was accomplished by heat tempering the counterpunch and softening the type punch.

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4 .Once the punches were read, um,

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5 .a mold could then be created from the punch by using the punch on a softer metal,

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6 .like copper, to create a matrix.

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7 .Then, the type metal, that alloy of lead, antimony, and tin,

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8 .flowed into the matrix to produce a single piece of type, ready for typesetting.

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9 .One characteristic of type metal that makes it valuable for this use is that it expands as it cools,

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10 .filling in any gaps present in the thinner portions of letters.

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11 .I hope I didn't confuse anyone.

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12 .Does everyone get this?

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13 .Great!

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