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第1段

1 .<-NARRATOR:->Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.

旁白:请听一个生物课上的讲座片段。

2 .<-FEMALE PROFESSOR:->Ok. There are two major types of classifiers in the world: people we call "lumpers" and people we call "splitters."

教授:在世界上有两种分类派系,一种被我们称为统合派,一种被我们称为分割派。

3 .A lumper is someone who tries to put as many things as possible in one category.

统合派的人会尽力把各种事物都放在一个分类下。

4 .Splitters like to look for the differences and put things in as many different categories as possible.

分割派的人则会着眼于事物之间的区别,把它们尽力划分出最多的类别。

5 .Both lumpers and splitters work in the business of defining biological classifications.

统合派和分割派都致力于确定生物的分类。

第2段

1 .The Greek philosopher Aristotle is generally considered the first person to systematically categorize things.

伟大的哲学家亚里士多德普遍被认为是系统地为生物分类的第一人。

2 .He divided all living things into two groups—they were either animal or vegetable.

他将所有生物划分为两大类,它们不是动物就是植物。

3 .And these categories are what biologists came to call kingdoms.

这些分类被生物学家称为“界”。

4 .So if it ran around it was an animal... a member of the animal kingdom, and if it stood still and grew in the soil it was a plant... a member of the plant kingdom.

所以如果一个生物可以四处跑来跑去,它就是动物,是动物界中的一员,如果它不动,长在土壤里,就是植物,属于植物界中的一员。

5 .This system—organizing all life into these two kingdoms—worked very well for quite a while, even into the age of the microscope.

这个分类系统把所有的生命体都划分进了这两个界,它在很长一段时间都起着很好的分类作用,甚至在显微镜的时代。

第3段

1 .With the invention of the microscope in the late 1500s, we discovered the first microorganisms; we saw that some wiggled and moved around and others were green and just sat there.

随着十六世纪末期显微镜的发明,我们发现了第一批微生物,我们看到一些会扭动且可以自由移动,另一部分是绿色且不动的。

2 .So the ones that moved like animals were classified as animals, and the more plant-like ones as plants.

所以那一些像动物一样可以移动的就被归类成了动物,更像植物的生物就被归类成了植物。

3 .Oh, before I go on, I must mention Carolus Linnaeus...kah-ROE-lus Li-NAY-us

哦,在我继续讲下去之前我必须先提一下卡罗勒斯•林奈。

第4段

1 .A hundred years or so after the invention of the microscope, Carolus Linnaeus devised a simple and practical system for classifying living things, according to the ranks of categorization still in use today— class, order, family, and so on.

大约在显微镜发明的一百年后,卡罗勒斯•林奈发明出了一个给生物分类的简单而实用的系统,这个系统是根据等级编目法来的——涉及的等级有纲,目,科等等,这些等级现在还在使用。

2 .And by far the best aspect of Linnaeus' system is the general use of binomial nomenclature—having just two names to describe any living organism.

至今为止,林奈的分类系统最好的一点是,他普遍使用了双名法,也就是只使用两个名字来命名任何一种生物。

3 .This replaced the use of long descriptive names, as well as common names which vary from place to place and language to language.

这就代替了长长的描述性名字,也代替了地域之间、语言之间各不相同的对物种的俗称。

4 .Binomial nomenclature gives every species a unique and stable two-word name, agreed upon by biologists worldwide.

双名法给每一个物种都起了一个独特稳定的双词名字,并且被全世界的生物学家所认同。

第5段

1 .But not everything about this system remained unchanged.

但是这个系统也并不是没有变化的。

2 .Take, for example, the mushroom... a fungus. It grew up from the ground and looked like a plant.

我们拿蘑菇,一种真菌的例子来说,蘑菇从地里长出来,看起来像是植物。

3 .So it was classified as a plant.

它以前也是被分到植物那一类的。

4 .But using the microscope, we discovered that a fungus contains these microscopic thread-like cells that run all over the place and so it's actually not that plant-like.

但是使用显微镜,我们发现真菌身上有这些微小的线状细胞,它们在真菌体内不断活动,所以它实际上也不那么像植物。

5 .So in this case, the splitters eventually won, and got a third kingdom just for the fungus.

所以在这种情况下,分割派取得了最终的胜利,他们为真菌分出了第三个界。

第6段

1 .And as microscopes improved, we discovered some micro-organisms that were incredibly small.

随着显微镜的逐渐改进,我们发现一些微生物是非常之小的。

2 .I'm talking about bacteria.

我在说细菌。

3 .And we could see that they didn't have what we'd call a nucleus, so they got their own kingdom—a kingdom of very tiny things without nuclei.

我们可以看到它们并没有我们称之为的细胞核,所以它们要独立出自己的界,一个没有核仁的非常小的生物的界。

4 .So then we had separate kingdoms for plants, and for animals. And the different kinds of fungus, like mushrooms. And for these tiny bacteria.

所以植物、动物、不同种类的真菌比如蘑菇、还有这些小小的细菌各自属于自己的界。

5 .But we also had some other micro-organisms that didn't fit anywhere.

但是我们还有一些别的微生物,它们不属于任何一个界。

6 .So biologists gave them their own kingdom, and this fifth kingdom was sort of an anything-that-doesn't-fit-in-the-first-four kingdom, which upset some people.

所以生物学家给它们单独分出了自己的界,几乎所有不适用于前四个界的生物都被归到了第五个界,这使得一些人沮丧。

第7段

1 .And then there was the question of viruses.

还有一个问题就是病毒。

2 .Viruses have some characteristics of life, but don't reproduce on their own or use energy.

病毒有一些生命体的特征,但是它们并不能自体繁殖,也不会消耗能量。

3 .So we still don't know what to do with them.

所以我们仍然不知道该怎么给病毒分类。

4 .The lumpers want to keep viruses in the current system.

统合派想把病毒也包含进目前的分类系统里。

5 .Some of the splitters say to give them a separate kingdom; and the extreme splitters say that viruses have nothing at all to do with living things and "keep them out of my department."

一些分割派说应该给病毒单独分出一个新的界,极端分割派认为病毒和生物并没有什么干系,应该将其剔出分类中。

第8段

1 .Recent research, though, has moved us in yet another direction.

然而近期的研究指向了另一个方向。

2 .Nowadays when we want to determine the characteristics of something, we look at its biochemistry and its genetic material.

现在,当我们想去决定一些生物的特征的时候,我们会看它的生物化学特征及基因组成。

3 .And what we've discovered is that some bacteria are not like the others.

我们发现的是,一些细菌和其他细菌并不一样。

4 .Many of these are called "extremophiles" EXTREME uh files.

很多这种细菌被称为极端微生物。

5 .They live in very strange places—in polar ice, or in the boiling water of hot springs; or in water so salty other organisms couldn't live there.

它们居住在非常奇怪的地方,比如在极地冰层里,热温泉沸腾的泉水里或者在其他细菌存活不下去的高盐度的水里。

6 .Extremophiles tend to have a different chemistry from other bacteria, a chemistry that, in some cases, is actually more related to plants and animals than to previously known bacteria.

极端微生物和别的细菌结构有差异,它们含有一种某些情况下与动植物联系更加密切的化学物质,这种物质与我们先前知道的细菌的联系倒是没有那么密切。

第9段

1 .So, what to do with these strange bacteria?

所以我们该怎么划分这种奇怪的细菌呢?

2 .Well, one thing we've done is create a new set of categories—the domains—overarching the different kingdoms.

我们已经做了的一件事是创造一系列新的分类,就是生物领域,它横跨不同的界。

3 .Biologists now recognize three domains.

生物学家现在定下了三个生物领域。

4 .But even as we talk about these new domains, well...come back in a few years and it might all be different.

但是甚至就是在我们正在谈论这些新的生物领域的时候,几年之后,它们也许会变得和现在很不一样。